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  1. Basarab III cel Bătrân ("the Old"), also known as Laiotă Basarab or Basarab Laiotă (? – 22 December 1480) was Voivode of the principality of Wallachia in the 1470s, repeating the achievement of Dan II in being elected by the boyars as voivode on five occasions. Moreover, he succeeded the same ruler (Radu cel Frumos in Basarab's case) on four occasions.

  2. Laiotă Basarab the Old: lt;p|>||||| ||||| ||| |Basarab III cel Bătrân| ("the Old"), also known as |Laiotă Basarab| or |Ba... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the ...

  3. www.wikizero.com › en › Basarab_Laiota_cel_BatranWikizero - Basarab the Old

    Basarab III cel Bătrân ("the Old"), also known as Laiotă Basarab or Basarab Laiotă (? – 22 December 1480) was Voivode of the principality of Wallachia in the 1470s, repeating the achievement of Dan II in being elected by the boyars as voivode on five occasions. Moreover, he succeeded the same ruler (Radu cel Frumos in Basarab's case) on four occasions.

  4. The Basarabs were a family which had an important role in the establishing of the Principality of Wallachia, giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Mușatin rulers of Moldavia. Its status as a dynasty is rendered problematic by the official elective system, which implied that male members of the same family, including illegitimate offspring, were chosen to rule by a council of boyars. After the rule of Alexandru I Aldea, the house was split by the conflict ...

  5. Mar 12, 2008 · For most of the period of Dracula's incarceration his brother, Radu cel Frumos (English version-Radu the Handsome), ruled Valachia as a puppet of the Ottoman sultan. When Radu died (ca. 1474-1475) the sultan appointed Basarab the Old, a member of the Danesti clan, as prince. Eventually, Dracula regained the favor and support of the Hungarian king.

  6. Jul 26, 2012 · The Basarab dynasty ruled Wallachia, the historical and geographical southern region of present-day Romania, for almost three centuries (1330-1601) and had among its members Vlad III the Impaler ...

    • == I. Historical Background ==
    • == II. What's in A Name? ==
    • == III. The Life of Vlad III Dracula, called The Impaler (1431-1476) ==
    • == IV. Atrocities ==
    • == v. Anecdotal Evidence ==
    • == VI. Dracula and The Vampire Myth ==
    • == A. Editor's Notes ==
    • == B. Related Links and Resources ==
    • == C. Final Notes ==

    ost of you ("the members of this list", R.P.'92, -Ed.) are probably aware of the fact that when Bram Stoker penned his immortal classic, Dracula, he based his vampire villian on an actual historical figure. Stoker's model was Vlad III Dracula (called Tepes, pronounced tse-pesh); a fifteenth century viovode, or prince, of Wallachia of the princely House of Basarab. Wallachia is a provence of Romania bordered to the north by Transylvania and Moldavia, to the east by the Black Sea and to the south by Bulgaria. Wallachia first emerged as a political entity during the late thirteenth century from the weltering confusion left behind in the Balkans as the Eastern Roman Empire slowly crumbled. The first prince of Wallachia was Basarab the Great (1310-1352), an ancestor of Dracula. Despite the splintering of the family into two rival clans, some members of the House of Basarab continued to govern Wallachia from that time until well after the Ottomans reduced the principality to the status of...

    here has been considerable debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the name 'Dracula'. The name is clearly related to Dracula's father's sobriquet 'Dracul'. Drac in Romanian means devil and "ul" is the definitive article. Therefore, "Dracul" literally means "the devil." The "ulea" ending in Romanian indicates "the son of." Under this interpretation Dracula becomes Vlad III, son of the devil. The experts who support this interpretation usually claim that Vlad II earned his devlish nickname by his clever and wily political maneuvering. The second interpretation of the name is more widely accepted. In 1431 Vlad II was invested with the Order of the Dragon by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg. The Order of the Dragon was a knightly order dedicated to fighting the Turk. Its emblem was a dragon, wings extended, hanging on a cross. From 1431 onward Vlad II wore the emblem of the order. His coinage bore the dragon symbol. The dragon was the symbol of the devil and, cons...

    racula was born in 1431 in the Transylvanian city of Sighisoara. At that time Dracula's father, Vlad II Dracul, was living in exile in Transylvania. Vlad Dracul was in Transylvania attempting to gather support for his planned effort to seize the Wallachian throne from the Danesti Prince, Alexandru I. The house where Dracula was born is still standing. In 1431 it was located in a prosperous neighborhood (of the fortress town Sighisoara, ed.) surrounded by the homes of Saxon and Magyar merchants and the townhouses of the nobility. Little is known about the early years of Dracula's life. It is known he had an elder brother, Mircea, and a younger brother named Radu. His early education was left in the hands of his mother, a Transylvanian noblewoman, and her family. His real education began in 1436 after his father succeeded in claiming the Wallachian throne and killing his Danesti rival. His training was typical to that common to the sons of the nobility throughout Europe. His first tut...

    ore than anything else the historical Dracula is known for his inhuman cruelty. Impalement was Dracula's preferred method of torture and execution. Impalement was and is one of the most gruesome ways of dying imaginable. Dracula usually had a horse attached to each of the victim's legs an a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body. The end of the stake was usually oiled and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp; else the victim might die too rapidly from shock. Normally the stake was inserted into the body through the buttocks and was often forced through the body until it emerged from the mouth. However, there were many instances where victims were impaled through other bodily orifices or through the abdomen or chest. Infants were sometimes impaled on the stake forced through their mother's chests. The records indicate that victims were sometimes impaled so that they hung upside down on the stake. Death by impalement was slow and painful. Victims sometimes endure...

    uch of the information we have about Vlad III comes from pamphlets published in Germany and Russia after his death. The German pamphlets appeared shortly after Dracula's death and, at least initially, may have been politically inspired. At that time Matthias Corvinus of Hungary was seeking to bolster his own reputation in the Holy Roman Empire and may have intended the early pamphlets as justification of his less than vigorous support of his vassal. The pamphlets were also a form of mass entertainment in a society where the printing press was just coming into widespread use. Much like the subject matter of the supermarket tabloids of today, the cruel life of the Wallachian tyrant was easily sensationalized. The pamphlets were reprinted numerous times over the thirty or so years following Dracula's death – strong proof of their popularity. The German pamphlets painted Dracula as an inhuman monster who terrorized the land and butchered innocents with sadistic glee. The Russian pamphle...

    t is unclear why Bram Stoker chose this fifteenth century Romanian prince as the model for his fictional vampire. Stoker was friends with a Hungarian professor from Buda-Pest and many have suggested that Dracula's name might have been mentioned by this friend. Regardless of how the name came to Stoker's attention the cruel history of the Impaler would have readily loaned itself to Stoker's purposes. The events of Dracula's life were played out in a region of the world that was still basically medieval even in Stoker's time. The Balkans had only recentlyshaken off the Turkish yoke when Stoker started working on his novel and the superstitions of the Dark Ages were still prevelent. Transylvania had long been a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but it too had endured a long period of Turkish domination and its culture was still largely medieval. The legend of the vampire was and still is deeply rooted in that region. There have always been vampire-like creatures in the mythologies o...

    This document, "The Historical Dracula", was originally authored by Ray Porter and dated April 30, 1992. According to Mr. Porter, it first appeared as a contribution to the LISTSERV FAQ Vampyres Li...
    I first encountered this essay in the spring of 1995 on the "Vampyres Only" homepage. Unfortunately I'd lost track of that URL and was unable to subsequently relocate it, a situation aggrivated by...
    Not long after republishing my version of Mr. Porter's essay, I managed to locate and contact him where he works at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He gave me his official approval...

    For additional historical information online about Vlad III (Tepes, the "Impaler") Dracula, XV c. Prince of Wallachia - defender of Christendom, the man and his times, and some of the historical or...

    My primary purpose for republishing this essay, and listing the accompanying links, is to express my personal interest in the topical subject-matter of the true and historical figure that was Vlad...
    PLEASE NOTE: I am well aware that there have been and are many sites on the Internet which have blatanly plagiarized Ray's work. It is unfortunately a persistant and often almost impossible problem...
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