From 626 BC to 539 BC, a ruling family referred to as the Chaldean dynasty, named after their possible Chaldean origin, ruled the kingdom at its height under the Neo-Babylonian Empire, although the final ruler of this empire, Nabonidus (556-539 BC) (and his son and regent Belshazzar) was a usurper of Assyrian ancestry.
Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as King of Babylon in 626 BC and being firmly established through the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and its ruling Chaldean dynasty would be short-lived, being conquered after less than a century by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC.
The entire period dominated by the Babylonians, in fact, is a period of great unrest as Babylonian hegemony was continually tested by philo-Assyrians. This conflict slammed the door on the Babylonian empire after a dynasty of only five kings.
Babylonian Mathematics 2 people who did not speak the Sumerian language. These people now are called Ubaidians, for the village Al-Ubaid, where their remains were first uncovered. Even less is known about their mathematics. Of the little that is known, the Sumerians of the Mesopotamian valley built
The Chaldean dynasty in Babylonia carried on Assyrian traditions of administration and encouraged commerce; under Nebuchadrezzar II (c. 605–c. 561 bc) their Neo-Babylonian Empire became the most powerful political entity of its time.
Where was Abraham's Ur? Gen 11:31 Terah took Abram his son and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram's wife, and they went forth together from Ur of the Chaldeans ( Ur [Light] of the ones of Kesad [Clod breaker] ) to go into the land of Canaan, but when they came to Haran, they settled there.