Charlemagne instituted principles for accounting practice by means of the Capitulare de villis of 802, which laid down strict rules for the way in which incomes and expenses were to be recorded. Charlemagne applied this system to much of the European continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England.
- Charlemagne’s Early Years
- Charlemagne Expands His Kingdom
- Charlemagne’s Family
- Charlemagne as Emperor
- Charlemagne’s Death and Succession
Charlemagne was born around 742, the son of Bertrada of Laon (d.783) and Pepin the Short (d.768), who became king of the Franks in 751. Charlemagne’s exact birthplace is unknown, although historians have suggested Liege in present-day Belgium and Aachen in modern-day Germany as possible locations. Similarly, little is known about the future ruler’s childhood and education, although as an adult, he displayed a talent for languages and could speak Latin and understand Greek, among other languag...
Once in power, Charlemagne sought to unite all the Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. In order to carry out this mission, he spent the majority of his reign engaged in military campaigns. Soon after becoming king, he conquered the Lombards (in present-day northern Italy), the Avars (in modern-day Austria and Hungary) and Bavaria, among others.Charlemagne waged a bloody, three-decades-long series of battles against the Saxons, a Germanic tribe of pagan...
In his personal life, Charlemagne had multiple wives and mistresses and perhaps as many as 18 children. He was reportedly a devoted father, who encouraged his children’s education. He allegedly loved his daughters so much that he prohibited them from marrying while he was alive.Einhard (c. 775-840), a Frankish scholar and contemporary of Charlemagne, wrote a biography of the emperor after his death. In the work, titled “Vita Karoli Magni (Life of Charles the Great),” he described Charlemagne...
In his role as a zealous defender of Christianity, Charlemagne gave money and land to the Christian church and protected the popes. As a way to acknowledge Charlemagne’s power and reinforce his relationship with the church, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800, at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.As emperor, Charlemagne proved to be a talented diplomat and able administrator of the vast area he controlled. He promoted education and encouraged the Carolingian...
According to Einhard, Charlemagne was in good health until the final four years of his life, when he often suffered from fevers and acquired a limp. However, as the biographer notes, “Even at this time…he followed his own counsel rather than the advice of the doctors, whom he very nearly hated, because they advised him to give up roasted meat, which he loved, and to restrict himself to boiled meat instead.”In 813, Charlemagne crowned his son Louis the Pious (778-840), king of Aquitaine, as co...
Charlemagne, also called Charles I, byname Charles the Great, (born April 2, 747?—died January 28, 814, Aachen, Austrasia [now in Germany]), king of the Franks (768–814), king of the Lombards (774–814), and first emperor (800–814) of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire.
Charlemagne, also known as Charles I and Charles the Great, was born around 742 A.D., likely in what is now Belgium. Crowned King of the Franks in 768, Charlemagne expanded the Frankish kingdom,...
Mar 25, 2019 · Charlemagne (Charles the Great, also known as Charles I, l. 742-814 CE) was King of the Franks (r. 768-814 CE), King of the Franks and Lombards (r. 774-814 CE), and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 800-814 CE).
- Joshua J. Mark
Charlemagne © Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks and Christian emperor of the West. He did much to define the shape and character of medieval Europe and presided over the...
- Personal Appearance
- The Donation of Constantine
- Cultural Significance
- External Links
Charlemagne's personal appearance is not known from any contemporary portrait, but it is known rather famously from a good description by Einhard, author of the biographical Vita Caroli Magni.He is well known to have been tall, stately, and fair-haired, with disproportionately thick neck. His skeleton was measured during the eighteenth century and his height was determined to be 1.90 m (6 ft 3 in), andas Einhard tells it in his twenty-second chapter: The Roman tradition of realistic personal portraiture was in complete eclipse at this time, where individual traits were submerged in iconic type castings. Charlemagne, as an ideal ruler, ought to be portrayed in the corresponding fashion, any contemporary would have assumed. The images of enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, bear more connections to the icons of Christ in majesty than to modern (or antique) conceptions of portraiture. Charlemagne in later imagery (as in the Dürer portrait) is often portrayed with flowi...
As an administrator, Charlemagne stands out for his many reforms: monetary, governmental, military, and ecclesiastical.
At about this time, the document known as the Donation of Constantine appeared, which, purporting to be the last will and testament of Constantine I grants to the Pope and his successors all authority, spiritual and temporal, in the Western Empire. He retained authority in the East. Subsequently acknowledged to be a forgery, this document nonetheless set out what served as the theory for centuries in the Roman Catholic world, that is, that the Pope exercises political as well as spiritual power and that all kings and princes derive their authority from the Pope. Technically, no one acceded a throne without papal blessings. Most of the time, the papacy lacked the military means to enforce its will but usually the threat of excommunication was enough (no ex-communicant could enter paradise). This model of church-state relationship actually reversed that practiced by Constantine himself, in which he was the ultimate authority and the church served the state. This remained the pattern i...
Charlemagne, being a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies, enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. One of the great medieval literary cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or the Matter of France, centers around the deeds of Charlemagne and his historical commander of the border with Brittany, Roland, and the paladins who are analogous to the knights of the Round Table or King Arthur's court. Their tales constitute the first chansons de geste. Charlemagne is depicted as the champion of Christendom against Muslims and pagans. Charlemagne also dealt diplomatically with Muslims, exchanging ambassadors with Harun al-Rashidand negotiating some degree of responsibility for the welfare of Christians and Christian sites in Palestine. Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the twelfth century. His canonization by Antipope Paschal III, to gain the favor of Frederick Barbarossa in 1165, was never recognized by the Holy See, which annulled all of P...
Marriages and heirs
1. His first wife was Himiltrude, married in 766. The marriage was never formally annulled. By her he had: 1.1. Pippin the Hunchback (767 - 813) 1. His second wife was Gerperga (often erroneously called Desiderata or Desideria), daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, married in 768, annulled in 771. 1. His third wife was Hildegard of Savoy (757 or 758 - 783 or 784), married 771, died 784. By her he had: 1.1. Charles the Younger (772 or 773 - 811), king of Neustria from 781 1.2. Adelaid...
Concubinages and illegitimate children
1. His first known concubine was Gersuinda. By her he had: 1.1. Adaltrude (b.774) 1. His second known concubine was Madelgard. By her he had: 1.1. Ruodhaid, daughter of Charlemagne (775 - 810), abbess of Faremoutiers 1. His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne. By her he had: 1.1. Alpaida (b.794) 1. His fourth known concubine was Regina. By her he had: 1.1. Drogo of Metz (801 - 855), bishop of Metz from 823 1.2. Hugh, son of Charlemagne (802 - 844), arch-chancellor of the Empire 1. Hi...Collins, Roger. Charlemagne. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998, ISBN 0802082181__________. Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000, Second Edition (Palgrave History of Europe) Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. ISBN 0312218869Einhard (ca. 770-840), The Life of Charlemagne. Medieval Sourcebook online: . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960. Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne,(original 1880) translated by Samuel Ep...Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,Hans Friedrich Mueller (ed). New York: Random House, 2003.
All links retrieved February 1, 2017. 1. The Life of Charlemagneby Einhard. At Medieval Sourcebook. 2. Vita Karoli Magniby Einhard. Latin text at The Latin Library. 3. Marco Bakker —Reportret: A reconstructed portrait of Charlemagne, based on historical sources, in a contemporary style.
Charlemagne (English: Charles the Great, German: Karl der Grosse, French: Charles le Grand, Latin: Carolus Magnus, Dutch: Karel de Grote), King of Neustria (768-771), King of the Franks (771-814), King of the Lombards (774-814), and Emperor of the Romans (800-814). He was the eldest son of Pippin III and Bertrada of Laon.
- HIS FATHER WASN'T BORN A KING. Charlemagne's father, Pepin III—often called Pepin the Short—was mayor of the palace (administrator of the royal court) before he was named the first King of the Franks.
- HIS BROTHER DIED SOON AFTER BECOMING CO-KING. After Pepin III died, Charlemagne shared power with his younger brother Carloman, with the two acting as joint kings.
- HE IS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF EUROPE. As the King of the Franks, Charlemagne set out on an ambitious and bloody campaign to expand his territory. By the time of his death in 814, this kingdom included the majority of what is now considered Western, and some of Central, Europe.
- BEING CROWNED EMPEROR MAY HAVE BEEN A SURPRISE. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor at Christmas mass in 800. Charlemagne had arrived in Rome a few weeks earlier at the request of the pope, but by many accounts, including that of his court scholar Einhard, he was not expecting his new role, and only realized what was happening when the pope put the imperial crown upon his head.
Feb 11, 2019 · 772: Charlemagne makes his first raid on the Saxons, which is a success; but this was just the beginning of an extended struggle against the decentralized pagan tribes 774: Charlemagne conquers Lombardy and becomes King of the Lombards
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