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  1. Charles I of Hungary - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Hungary

    Oct 13, 2020 · Charles Martel was the firstborn son of Charles II of Naples and Charles II's wife, Mary, who was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. [4] [5] After the death of her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary , in 1290, Queen Mary announced her claim to Hungary , stating that the House of Árpád (the royal family of Hungary) had become extinct with ...

  2. Charles I of Austria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Austria

    3 days ago · Charles was born on 17 August 1887, in the Castle of Persenbeug, in Lower Austria.His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony.At the time, his great-uncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.

  3. 4 days ago · Today is the feast of the Blessed Emperor, Charles I of Austria-Hungary. The release of my new biography of the saintly monarch last month have for obvious reasons brought him to my mind in recent days. Added to this is the impending dedication of the 16th shrine in his honor in these United States, at …

  4. Blessed Charles of Austria: The Indivisible Emperor ...

    catholicdaily.com/2020/10/21/blessed-charles-of...

    4 days ago · Today is the feast of the Blessed Emperor, Charles I of Austria-Hungary. The release of my new biography of the saintly monarch last month have for obvious reasons brought him to my mind in recent days. Added to this is the impending dedication of the 16 th

  5. Saint of the Day ~ October 21 – Evangelization Apostolate of ...

    ev-apostolate.org/2020/10/21/saint-of-the-day...

    4 days ago · Today, the Church honors Blessed Charles of Austria, who, as the country’s emperor and apostolic king of Hungary, lived his faith as leader of his people, always drawn to a strong sense of Christian social justice. Charles was born of royal parents on August 17, 1887, in the Castle of Persenbeug in the region of Lower Austria.

  6. Brief History of Europe/Early modern period - Wikibooks, open ...

    en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Brief_History_of_Europe/...
    • States and Territories of The Early Modern Period
    • Russia, Sweden, and Poland
    • Decline of The Holy Roman Empire
    • House of Hohenzollern
    • Houses of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine
    • House of Bourbon and France
    • Reformation and Religious Turmoil
    • Age of Discovery and Colonial Empires
    • Rise of Philosophy, The Arts, Science and Trade

    States and territories of the early modern period included: Northern Europe 1. The Kingdom of England (which included Wales from 1284) would later become the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800) by including the Kingdom of Scotland; the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1801) was a client state of the British. The end of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) led to two states: Denmark–Norway (1523–1533 & 1537–1814); and the Swedish Empire(1611–1721), which included Finland. Western and Central Europe 1. Included France; and the Holy Roman Empire, with lands of Brandenburg-Prussia and the lands of the Austrian Monarchy. The Habsburg Netherlands (1482–1794) would become the Seventeen Provinces (1549–1581), covering the Low Countries. The Seventeen Provinces gave rise to the Dutch Republic, an independent state from 1581–1795; and the Southern Netherlands (until 1794). The Old Swiss Confederacy(c. 1300 – 1798) gained de facto independence from the Holy Roman Empire after the Swabian War (1499), where it...

    Russian Tsardom and Empire

    Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) became a new name for Muscovy, also known as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Ivan the Terrible(Ivan IV Vasilyevich) the grandson of Ivan III, was declared "Tsar of All Rus'" (1547–1584), after ruling as Grand Prince of Moscow (1533–1547). Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Sibirean khanates. Later on, the rest of Siberia would fall to the Russians, and by the mid-17th century Russia had expanded to the Pacific Ocean. The Rurik dynasty wer...

    Swedish Empire

    Swedish Empire (1611–1721) was a great power in Europe and a rival to Russia in Eastern Europe. The Swedish Empire was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (or Gustav II Adolf, who reigned 1611–1632); he led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, including great victories such as the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), before dying at the Battle of Lützen (1632). Gaining territories after the Thirty Years' War, they would be a military might during the Northern Wars, before lo...

    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

    The Kingdom of Poland created a bi-confederation with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to create the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth(1569–1795). During this period the King of Poland would also be the Grand Duke of Lithuania, although this personal union had existed since 1386. The "Golden Liberty" meant that the king was elected, and that the nobles held considerable power. The Poles were mostly West-Slavic, and the Lithuanians were mostly Balts. During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618), the P...

    In 1500 and 1512, the core of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles. These included Bavarian, Franconian, Upper and Lower Saxon, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Austrian, Burgundian, and Electoral Rhenish Circles. Territories within the Imperial Circles are sometimes considered to make up the Kingdom of Germany. Outside of the Imperial Circles were the lands of the Bohemian Crown (included Silesia), the Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798), as well as the Italian territories. Imperial Circles consisted of Imperial Estates, ruled by Imperial Princes. The Imperial Diet, the highest representative assembly, consisted of three colleges: an Electoral College of seven Prince-electors, who elected the emperor; a college of Imperial Princes; and a college of Free and Imperial Cities. Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope, Pope Clement VII in 1530. Since the 13th century the Holy Roman Emperor had began to lose power and territory...

    The House of Hohenzollern was a German dynasty from Hechingen in Swabia, who took their name from Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. Most importantly, the Brandenburg-Prussian branch would rule Brandenburg-Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the German Empire The first branch was the Swabian branch who ruled Zollern, a county in the Holy Roman Empire which from 1218 was called Hohenzollern, and whose capital became Hechingen. At first they ruled as Counts of Zollern (1061–1204) and Hohenzollern (1204–1575). They would then rule Hohenzollern-Haigerloch, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen during the period of 1576 to 1849. After 1849 to the present day they continued as Heads of the Princely House of Hohenzollern. Other than the Swabian branch, other ruling branches were: 1. Brandenburg-Prussian branch, which included the Electors and Margraves of Brandenburg, 1415 to 1806. They also included the rulers of Prussia (1525–1918), and the German Emperors (1871–191...

    The House of Habsburg (or House of Austria) was one of the most important dynastic royal houses in the history of Europe. Named after Habsburg Castle (in present-day Switzerland), they were powerful monarchs of many dominions across Europe during the Middle Ages and modern period. It was succeeded by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine(a branch of the House of Lorraine) with the extinction of the male line but the continuation of the female line. The key monarchies for the Houses of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine were the following: 1. Monarchs of Austriabetween 1282 and 1918, as dukes, archdukes or emperors, or female equivalents. The Austrian branch gained many dominions both inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire. 2. Monarchs of Spain(Castile and Aragon) between 1516 and 1700. The Spanish branch was mostly separate from the Austrian branch, and would have a significant presence in the New World, the Netherlands (then covering the Low Countries), and Italy and its surrounding isla...

    The House of Bourbon was a branch of the Capetian dynasty; it succeeded the House of Capet (987–1328) and Valois kings(1328–1589) as French monarchs. Branches would also become Spanish monarchs (see below), and Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (1964–present), as well as holding many other titles. Henry IV, the Great (1589–1610) was the first Bourbon monarch, who ascended during the turmoil surrounding the French Wars of Religion. He was succeeded by Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI. Louis XVI was deposed in 1792 by the Great French Revolution (1789–1799). The Bourbons were later restored 1815–1830, with Louis XVIII and Charles X; and Louis-Philippe I (of the House of Orléans cadet branch) ruled 1830–1848. Cardinal Richelieu, King Louis XIII's chief minister between 1624–1642, helped transform France into a modern state. Louis XIV (the Great or the Sun King) ruled France between 1643–1715. An absolute monarch, he greatly expanded the Palace of Versailles, and revoked the Edict...

    Protestant Reformation and earlier movements

    The Protestant Reformation was the establishment of Protestantism by in a 16th-century western Europe, whose religion was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation began in 1517, at Wittenberg, Saxony, when Martin Luther sent his Ninety-Five Thesesto the Archbishop of Mainz; these protested against the sale of plenary indulgences by the clergy. This was not the first time that the Catholic religion had been challenged. For example, in the High Middle Ages the Catharso...

    English Reformation and religious tensions

    English Reformation: took place during the 16th century, when Henry VIII established the Anglican faith, followed by the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Gunpowder Plot (1605) was an attempted assassination of the Protestant King James I of England by Catholics. The English Civil Wars(1642–1646, 1648–1649, 1649–1651) were partly religious in origin, and were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (of England, Ireland and Scotland) between 1639–1651. Anti-Catholic hysteria resulted in the P...

    Counter-Reformation

    Counter-Reformation: was a period of Catholic resurgence in response to the Reformation. It began with the 25 sessions of the Council of Trent (1545–1563), which led to reform of Church doctrines and teachings, the foundation of seminaries for the training of priests, and new religious orders such as the Jesuits. The Inquisitionwas used to enforce the Counter-Reformation and suppress heresy; it included the Spanish Inquisition, the Roman Inquisition, and Portuguese Inquisition.

    Age of Discovery: from circa 1400 to 1800. Lands include the Americas (the New World); southern Africa; Congo River; West Indies; India; Maluku Islands (Spice Islands); Australasia; New Zealand; Antarctica; Hawaii. Largely coincided with the Age of Sail(1571–1862). Spanish Empire (1492–1975): Christopher Columbus landed in the New World in 1492. This was followed by La Conquista, the Spanish colonization of the Americas by the conquistadores. Cortes conquered the Aztecs after the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21). In 1532 Pizarro conquered the Inca empire in Peru. The Maya and many other peoples were also conquered. Spanish lands in the Americas would be mainly divided into Viceroyalties: New Granada, New Spain, Peru, and Río de la Plata; and also Spanish Louisiana, and many other islands and territories. Portuguese Empire (1415–1999): Vasco da Gama, during his voyage to India (1497–1499), performed the first navigation around South Africa, to connect the Atlantic and the Indian oceans. T...

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance began in Italy 14th century, and continued into the 17th century. It literally meant "rebirth", as it was seen as a rebirth of Classical learning and culture. There were developments in philosophy (particularly humanism), science, technology, and warfare. There were also artistic developments, including architecture, dance, fine arts, literature and music. There was renewed interest in Classical Roman and Greek texts, but also translations of Arabic texts. Early writers includ...

    Baroque Period and Age of Enlightenment

    Baroque Period (17th and 18th centuries) was characterised by highly ornate styles in architecture, music, painting, and sculpture. Artists included Velázquez, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Poussin, and Vermeer. Baroque composers included Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, and Henry Purcell. It was followed by the Classical period of music; roughly between 1730 and 1820, it included Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven,...

    Capitalism and mercantilism

    Rise of capitalism: capitalism became a dominant force in the sixteenth century, with the abolition of feudalism. It took its name from capital, defined by Adam Smith as "that part of man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The investment of capital became the primary factor in the accumulation of wealth. Mercantilism, the exporting goods from countries, also rose in importance, particularly as a result of colonialism, with the trade of slaves and goods across the Atlantic Ocean...

  7. Charles VI | Holy Roman emperor | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/.../Charles-VI-Holy-Roman-emperor

    Oct 16, 2020 · Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor from 1711 and, as Charles III, archduke of Austria and king of Hungary. As pretender to the throne of Spain (as Charles III), he attempted unsuccessfully to reestablish the global empire of his 16th-century ancestor Charles V. He was the author of the Pragmatic

  8. Gyula Gömbös | Hungarian premier | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Gyula-Gombos

    Oct 02, 2020 · Gyula Gömbös, (born Dec. 26, 1886, Murga, Hung., Austria-Hungary [now in Hungary]—died Oct. 6, 1936, Munich, Ger.), Hungarian premier (1932–36) who was known for his reactionary and anti-Semitic views and who was largely responsible for the trend to fascism in Hungary in the interwar period.

  9. Coats of Arms of the French Royal Family - Wikimedia

    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coats_of_Arms_of_the...

    5 days ago · 3.3.1 Non-royal Valois (issue of Charles, cout of Valois, son of Philip III of France) 3.3.2 Kings; 3.3.3 Issue of Philippe VI the Fortunate of France; 3.3.4 Issue of Jean II the Good of France. 3.3.4.1 Issue of Philippe the Bold, duke of Burgundy; 3.3.5 Issue of Charles V the Wise of France. 3.3.5.1 Issue of Louis, duke of Orléans

  10. MEPs slam EU rule of law measures as 'ill-equipped and ...

    www.euronews.com/2020/10/05/meps-slam-eu-rule-of...

    European Council President Charles Michel is calling on both sides to compromise. ... Hungary and Poland have slammed attempts by MEPs and member states to link EU money and issues around ...