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Charles IV, byname Charles of Luxembourg, original name Wenceslas, Czech Karel Lucembursky, or Václav, German Karl Von Luxemburg, or Wenzel, (born May 14, 1316, Prague—died Nov. 29, 1378, Prague), German king and king of Bohemia (as Charles) from 1346 to 1378 and Holy Roman emperor from 1355 to 1378, one of the most learned and diplomatically skillful sovereigns of his time.
- Early Life
- Early Reign
- Later Reign
- Evaluation and Legacy
- Patronage of Culture and The Arts
- Family and Children
- Named After Charles IV
Charles IV was born to King John of the Luxembourg dynasty and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia of the Czech Premyslid Dynasty in Prague. He was originally named Wenceslaus (Václav), the name of his maternal grandfather, King Wenceslaus II. He chose the name Charles at his confirmation in honor of his uncle, King Charles IV of France, at whose court he was resident for seven years. He received French education and was literate and fluent in five languages: Latin, Czech, German, French, and Italian. In 1331, he gained some experience of warfare in Italy with his father. At the beginning of 1333, Charles went to Lucca (Tuscany) to consolidate his rule there. In an effort to defend the city, Charles founded the nearby fortress and the town of Montecarlo (Charles' Mountain). From 1333, he administered the lands of the Bohemian Crown due to his father's frequent absence and deteriorating eyesight. In 1334, Charles was named Margrave of Moravia, the traditional title for heirs to the throne. Tw...
On 11 July 1346, in consequence of an alliance between his father and Pope Clement VI, relentless enemy of the emperor Louis IV, Charles was chosen as Roman king in opposition to Louis by some of the prince-electors at Rhens. As he had previously promised to be subservient to Clement, he made extensive concessions to the pope in 1347. Confirming the papacy in the possession of vast territories, he promised to annul the acts of Louis against Clement, to take no part in Italian affairs, and to defend and protect the church. Charles IV was in a very weak position in Germany. Owing to the terms of his election, he was derisively referred to as a "Priests' King" (Pfaffenkönig). Many bishops and nearly all of the Imperial cities remained loyal to Louis the Bavarian. Worse still, Charles backed the wrong side in the Hundred Years' War, losing his father and many of his best knights at the Battle of Crécyin August 1346, with Charles himself escaping from the field wounded. Charles initially...
Having made good use of the difficulties of his opponents, Charles was again elected in Frankfurt on 17 June 1349 and re-crowned at Aachen on 25 July 1349. He was soon the undisputed ruler of the Empire. Gifts or promises had won the support of the Rhenish and Swabian towns; a marriage alliance secured the friendship of the Habsburgs; and an alliance with Rudolf II of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, was obtained when Charles, who had become a widower in 1348, married Rudolph's daughter Anna. In 1350, the king was visited at Prague by the Roman tribune Cola di Rienzo, who urged him to go to Italy, where the poet Petrarch and the citizens of Florence also implored his presence. Turning a deaf ear to these entreaties, Charles kept Cola in prison for a year, and then handed him as a prisoner to Clement at Avignon. Outside Prague, Charles attempted to expand the Bohemian crown lands, using his imperial authority to acquire fiefs in Silesia, the Upper Palatinate, and Franconia. The...
In 1354, Charles crossed the Alps without an army, received the Lombard crown in St. Ambrose Basilica, Milan, on 5 January 1355, and was crowned emperor at Rome by a cardinal in April of the same year. His sole object appears to have been to obtain the Imperial crown in peace, in accordance with a promise previously made to Pope Clement. He only remained in the city for a few hours, in spite of the expressed wishes of the Roman people. Having virtually abandoned all the Imperial rights in Italy, the emperor re-crossed the Alps, pursued by the scornful words of Petrarch, but laden with considerable wealth. On his return, Charles was occupied with the administration of the Empire, then just recovering from the Black Death, and in 1356, he promulgated the famous Golden Bullto regulate the election of the king. Having given Moravia to one brother, John Henry, and erected the county of Luxembourg into a duchy for another, Wenceslaus, he was unremitting in his efforts to secure other terr...
His second journey to Italy took place in 1368, when he had a meeting with Pope Urban V at Viterbo, was besieged in his palace at Siena, and left the country before the end of 1369. During his later years, the emperor took little part in German affairs beyond securing the election of his son Wenceslaus as king of the Romans in 1376, and negotiating a peace between the Swabian League of Cities and some nobles in 1378. After dividing his lands between his three sons and his nephews, he died in November 1378 at Prague, where he was buried, and where a statue was erected to his memory in 1848. Charles IV suffered from gout(metabolic arthritis), a painful disease quite common in that time.
The reign of Charles IV was characterised by a transformation in the nature of the Empire and is remembered as the Golden Age of Bohemia. He promulgated the Golden Bull of 1356whereby the succession to the imperial title was laid down, which held for the next four centuries. He also organized the states of the empire into peace-keeping confederations. In these, the Imperial cities figured prominently. The Swabian Landfriede confederation of 1370 was made up almost entirely of Imperial Cities. At the same time, the leagues were organized and led by the crown and its agents. As with the electors, the cities that served in these leagues were given privileges to aid in their efforts to keep the peace. He assured his dominance over the eastern borders of the Empire through succession treaties with the Habsburgs and the purchase of Brandenburg. He also claimed imperial lordship over the crusader states of Prussia and Livonia.
Prague became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Charles IV. The name of the royal founder and patron remains on many monuments and institutions, for example Charles University, Charles Bridge, Charles Square. High Gothic Prague Castle and part of the cathedral of Saint Vitus by Peter Parler were also built under his patronage. Finally, the first flowering of manuscript painting in Prague dates from Charles' reign. In the present Czech Republic, he is still regarded as Pater Patriae (father of the country or otec vlasti), a title first coined by Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinioat his funeral. Charles also had strong ties to Nuremberg, staying within its city walls 52 times and thereby strengthening its reputation amongst German cities. Charles was the patron of the Nuremberg Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. Charles's imperial policy was focused on...
Charles was married four times. His first wife was Blanche of Valois, (1316–48), daughter of Charles, Count of Valois, and a half-sister of Philip VI of France. They had three children: 1. son (b.1334), died young 2. Margaret of Bohemia (1335 - 1349); married Louis I of Hungary. 3. Catherine of Bohemia (1342–95); married Rudolf IV of Austria and Otto V, Duke of Bavaria, Elector of Brandenburg. He secondly married Anna of Bavaria, (1329–53), daughter of Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria; they had one son: 1. Wenceslaus (1350–51). His third wife was Anna von Schweidnitz, (1339–62), daughter of Henry II, Duke of Świdnica and Katharina of Anjou (daughter of Charles I Robert, King of Hungary), by whom he had three children: 1. Elisabeth of Bohemia (19 April 1358 – 4 September 1373); married Albert III of Austria. 2. Wenceslaus (1361–1419); later elected King of Germany (formally King of the Romans) and, on his father's death, became King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) and Emperor-elect of the Ho...
Castles built or established by Charles IV. 1. Karlstein Castle, 1348–55 in Central Bohemian Region for safekeeping the Imperial Regalia, especially the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (later the Czech Crown Jewelswere also kept there) 2. Kašperk Castle (Karlsberg), 1356 in Klatovy District 3. Lauf (Wenzelsburg) - built on the way connecting Prague and Nuremberg in Bohemian Palatinate, inside survived 112 coats of arms of the Czech Kingdom 4. Montecarloin Italy 5. Radyně (Karlskrone) – around 1360 in Plzeň Region 6. Hrádek u Purkarce(Karlshaus) - around 1357 7. Tepenec(Twingenberg, Karlsburg) 8. Karlsfried Castle
Other places named after Charles: 1. Karlštejncastle, Czech Republic 2. Karlštejn(town), Czech Republic 3. Charles Bridge, Prague (Karlův most) 4. Charles University, Prague (Karlova Univerzita) 5. Karlovy Varyspa, Czech Republic 6. Carlsbad(several places in the United States) 7. Charles Square, Prague (Karlovo náměstí) 8. Montecarlo (Charles' Mountain) fort and village in Italy 9. 16951 Carolus Quartus(an asteroid)
- 14 May 1316 Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia
- Louis IV
- 6 January 1355, Milan (Italian)
- 1355 – 29 November 1378
Charles IV. Charles IV (1316-1378) reigned as king of Bohemia from 1346 and Holy Roman emperor from 1355. He strengthened monarchical authority and increased intellectual and cultural contact between Bohemia and the West. On May 14, 1316, Charles IV was born in Bohemia, the son of John of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia.
Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV., Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus, was the second King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles IV was king of Bohemia and also the first Bohemian ruler to become Holy Roman Emperor. Born in Prague to King John of Luxembourg and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, he belonged to the ‘House of Luxembourg’ from his father’s side and to the ‘House of Premyslid’ from his mother’s.
Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV, Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316, Prague – 29 November 1378 ), born Wenceslaus (), was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first king of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor.
- Military Service
- Heir Presumptive and Relationship with His Brother
- Reign in Holy Roman Empire
- Abdications and Later Life
- Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
- External Links
Archduke Charles (baptized Carolus Franciscus Josephus Wenceslaus Balthasar Johannes Antonius Ignatius), the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 27 February 1685. His tutor was Anton Florian, Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg. The ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, wh...
The Austrians, the Dutch and English allies formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708 the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, and had defeated Louis XIV's ally Bavaria. France faced invasion, but the unity of the allies broke first. With the Grand Alliance defeated in Spain, its casualties and costs mounting and aims diverging, the Tories came to power in Great Britain in 1710 and resolved to end the war. French and British ministers prepared the groundwork for a peace conference and in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, but defeated by Marshal Villars they were soon compelled to accept Anglo-French mediation. By the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) and of the Treaty of Rastatt(1714), the Spanish empire was partitioned between the major and minor powers. The Austrians received most of Spain's former European...
After his father, Leopold I died in 1705, with his elder brother, Charles succeeded the imperial throne as Charles VI and III. Although Joseph was the heir presumptive when Joseph become the Archduke of Austria in 1707, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children. Charles give Joseph, the command of the Imperial armyat aged 26, which rank is the General. During his brother's reign, Charles continuing the war of Spanish Succession, which Joseph's supported of his brother to become the King of Spain, which ends unsuccessful under the will of Charles II of Spain.
Accession to the throne
His brother, Joseph I died in 1711 from illness after the smallpox epidemic of 1711. Having no legitimate children because it old enough, Charles was succeeded by his brother Joseph, who reigned in Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia as Joseph I. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. Aged 35, he was the youngest person yet to assume the imperial throne. He condoning the war against Kin...
Internal and policies
Joseph I in contrast, was far more decisive and convinced also of the need for reforms to his father. The first changes dealt with the replacement of the Cabinet. Salm was Colonel steward and de facto Prime Minister. Baron Seilern and count Sinzendorf it had to share the position of the Austrian Chancellor, while Graf Kinsky became the sole Bohemian Chancellor. The much more influential justice Chancellor was the Böhme Wratislaw. Other significant reform was the reduction of the Privy from 15...
The Catholic clergy was forced to a "voluntary gift", while the nobles were a "Contributio". Along with these means succeeded Joseph 1708 to raise the income of the Crown on 16 to 17 million. 1706 reaching the climax, which was funds driven from the Contributio: 9 million. Also from the occupied Electorate of BavariaFunds flowed to the Emperor Bavaria and the Rhenish territories. Bavaria alone delivered 1.2 to 1.5 million. 300,000 guilders to Vienna, they had driven the Empire Knights of the...
Joseph abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. First he abdicated the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, both fiefs of the Papacy, and the Duchy of Milan to his son-in-law, Polish King Augustus III in 1732. Upon Joseph's abdication of Croatia on 25 July, Augustus was invested with the kingdom (officially "Hungary and Bohemia") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. The abdication of the throne of Duchy of Teschen, sometimes dated to 16 January 1734. The most famous—and public—abdication of Joesph took place a year later, on 25 October 1735, when he announced to the States General of the Netherlands his abdication of those territories and the county of Charolais and his intention to retire to a monastery. In April 1736, he abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor in favor of his brother Charles, which Charles elect-King of the Romans in 1735. Although the abdication was accepted by the Electors of the Empire when the Imperial election in 1736.The delay had been at Joesph's request who had been co...
Titles and styles
1. 1 October 1685 – 12 October 1711 His Royal Highness The Archduke Charles of Austria 1.1. 1 November 1700 – 12 October 1711 His MajestyThe King of Spain 2. 12 October 1711 – 20 October 1740 His Imperial MajestyThe Holy Roman Emperor
Full titles of Charles as the emperor and ruler of Habsburg lands as well as a pretender to the Spanish throne went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Castile, Aragon, Leon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galitia, Lodomeria, Cumania, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibralta...Crankshaw, Edward: Maria Theresa, 1969, Longman publishers, Great Britain (pre-dates ISBN)Jones, Colin: The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, University of Columbia Press, Great Britain, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7Fraser, Antonia: Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of The Sun King, Orion books, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2293-7Mahan, J.Alexander: Maria Theresa of Austria, Crowell publishers, New York, 1932 (pre-dates ISBN)Template:DNB-PortalTemplate:DDBTemplate:AustriaforumTemplate:Nömuseum
- Imperial Crypt
- Victor Amadeus II
- 1 May 1720, Palermo Cathedral
- 17 February 1720 – 3 July 1735
Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV, constitution for the Holy Roman Empire promulgated in 1356 by the emperor Charles IV. It was intended to eliminate papal interference in German political affairs and to recognize the importance of the princes, especially the electors, of the empire.