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What are the basics of cryptography?

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2. ### Cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography

2 days ago · Cryptography, or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, romanized: kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία-logia, "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.

• Lorenz Cipher

The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream...

• Block Ciphers

In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm...

3. ### History of cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cryptography

2 days ago · Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago. Until recent decades, it has been the story of what might be called classic cryptography — that is, of methods of encryption that use pen and paper, or perhaps simple mechanical aids.

4. ### Public-key cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
• Overview
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Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys, which may be disseminated widely, and private keys, which are known only to the owner. The generation of such keys depends on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to produce one-way functions. Effective security only requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security. In such a system, any person can

Before the mid-1970s, all cipher systems used symmetric key algorithms, in which the same cryptographic key is used with the underlying algorithm by both the sender and the recipient, who must both keep it secret. Of necessity, the key in every such system had to be exchanged between the communicating parties in some secure way prior to any use of the system – a secure channel. This requirement is never trivial and very rapidly becomes unmanageable as the number of participants increases ...

The most obvious application of a public key encryption system is in encrypting communication to provide confidentiality – a message that a sender encrypts using the recipient's public key can be decrypted only by the recipient's paired private key. Another application in public key cryptography is the digital signature. Digital signature schemes can be used for sender authentication. Non-repudiation systems use digital signatures to ensure that one party cannot successfully dispute its ...

As with all security-related systems, it is important to identify potential weaknesses.

Examples of well-regarded asymmetric key techniques for varied purposes include

During the early history of cryptography, two parties would rely upon a key that they would exchange by means of a secure, but non-cryptographic, method such as a face-to-face meeting or a trusted courier. This key, which both parties kept absolutely secret, could then be used to exchange encrypted messages. A number of significant practical difficulties arise with this approach to distributing keys.

5. ### Key (cryptography) - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_(cryptography)

Nov 28, 2020 · In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa depending on the decryption algorithm.

6. ### Elliptic-curve cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic-curve_cryptography

6 days ago · From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC allows smaller keys compared to non-EC cryptography (based on plain Galois fields) to provide equivalent security.

7. ### Post-quantum cryptography - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography

3 days ago · Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer.

8. ### Cryptographic hash function - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptographic_hash_function

3 days ago · A cryptographic hash function (CHF) is a mathematical algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size (often called the "message") to a bit array of a fixed size (the "hash value", "hash", or "message digest"). It is a one-way function, that is, a function which is practically infeasible to invert.

9. ### Salt (cryptography) - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_(cryptography)

4 days ago · In cryptography, a salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes data, a password or passphrase.Salts are used to safeguard passwords in storage.

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