Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period.
This is a list of paintings and drawings by the 17th-century Spanish artist Diego Velázquez. Velázquez was not prolific; he is estimated to have produced between only 110 and 120 known canvases. Among these paintings, however, are many widely known and influential works. All paintings are in oil on canvas unless noted.
- Velázquezův Obraz V Čechách
Základním pramenem k Velázquezově životě je spis jeho současníka, malíře a historika umění Antonia Palomina El Museo pictorio y escaia optica z roku 1724. Velázquezův děd se do Sevilly přistěhoval někdy po roce 1581 z Porta, v době, kdy Španělsko a Portugalsko tvořily personální unii. Velázquezův otec Juan, stejně jako matka Jerónima Velázquez, kteří měli svatbu v roce 1597, pocházeli z nižší šlechty. Po nejstarším Diegovi se manželům narodilo ještě dalších sedm dětí.
Po krátkém studiu malířství v ateliéru Franciska de Herrery staršího se od prosince 1610 stal učedníkem v dílně malíře Francisca Pacheca. Pacheco byl vzdělaný muž, v jeho sevillském domě se scházeli intelektuálové a diskutovali o sochařství, malířství a literatuře. V 1. polovině 17. století byla sevillská malířská škola nejvýznamnější v celém Španělsku – patřili k ní mj. i Francisco de Zurbarán či Murillo. V roce 1617 Velázquezova učňovská léta skončila. Mladý malíř složil před Pachecem a Jua...
V roce 1618 si Velázquez vzal za manželku Pachecovu dceru Juanu. Byla to nejen ve Španělsku obvyklá praxe, kdy řemeslničtí mistři – malířství nebylo pokládáno za umění, nýbrž za řemeslo – provdávali své dcery za nadané tovaryše. Velásquezovi měli jen dvě dcery, z nichž jedna zemřela v mladém věku. Druhou, Francisku, dal roku 1633 Velázquez za ženu svému žákovi, malíři Juanu del Mazo.
Do dějin umění se Velázquez zapsal především jako mistrný a pronikavý portrétista zejména členů španělské královské rodiny a významných osobností své doby. V portrétech dokázal jako málokdo jiný vystihnout povahu svých modelů. Zaměření na portrétní tvorbu vyplývalo z jeho povinností spojených s funkcí dvorního malíře. Mistrovskými díly jsou ale i Velázquezovy obrazy s mytologickoua náboženskou tematikou.
V lobkovických sbírkách se dochovaly dva portréty infantky Markéty 1651–1673. Tato dcera Filipa IV. se roku 1666 provdala za římského císaře a českého krále Leopolda I. V té době byl nejvyšším hofmistrem a prvním ministrem říše kníže Václav Eusebius Popel z Lobkovic. V Lobkovickém paláci na Pražském Hraděje její portrét ve věku přibližně pěti let. Právě ten je připisován Velázquezovi.
Velázquez patřil k malířům, kteří byli uznáváni jak za svého života, tak i po smrti. Byl ale natolik individualistický a výjimečný, že nevytvořil žádnou vlastní školu. V roce 1824 napsal Delacroix: "Viděl jsem Velázqueze a mohl jsem ho kopírovat. Je to právě to, co jsem tak dlouho hledal." Velázqueze velice ctil Manet. "Velázquez je malíř nad malíře," měl prohlásit. Rovněž Renoir se vydal v roce 1881 vydal do Madridu, aby mohl dílo španělského malíře studovat. Ale také některé významné malíře 20. století Velázquez fascinoval. Francis Bacon byl v určitém období doslova posedlý portrétem papeže Inocence X. a počátkem 50. let namaloval osm variací tohoto portrétu. Ještě pilnější byl v tomto ohledu Picasso. Roku 1957 namaloval 58 olejomaleb na téma Dvorních dam, v nichž Velázquezův obraz interpretuje a domýšlí z různých aspektů. Velázqueze ctil i Salvador Dalí. Roku 1958 namaloval obraz s názvem Velázquez maluje infantku Margaretu.Kristus v domě Marty a Marie, 1618Infantka Markéta, 1660Pijáci, 1628/1629Kapitulace Bredy, 1634/1635
1. Historie kompozice obrazů 2. Dvorní dámy 3. Filip IV. Španělský 4. Jusepe de Ribera 5. Museo del Prado
1. Obrázky, zvuky či videa k tématu Diego Velázquez na Wikimedia Commons 2. Seznam děl v Souborném katalogu ČR, jejichž autorem nebo tématem je Diego Velázquez 3. Životopis (česky) 4. Stránka věnovaná malíři s reprodukcemi všech obrazů (anglicky) 5. Údaje o malíři z britské Národní galerie (anglicky) 6. Životopis (anglicky) 7. Životopis (anglicky)
Jun 19, 2020 · Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez was born in Seville, Spain, circa June 6, 1599. At the age of 11, he began a six-year apprenticeship with local painter Francisco Pacheco. Velázquez's early ...
- The Rise to Court Artist
- High Office
- The Golden Age
Velázquez was born in 1599 in Seville in southern Spain, at that time an important city with a thriving artistic community. At the age of eleven, Velázquez was apprenticed to Francisco Pacheco, Seville's most significant artist and art theorist. From Pacheco, Velázquez learned the technical skills of drawing and painting, still-life and portraiture and soon surpassed his master. Unlike the more traditional Pacheco, he responded to the techniques of modern innovators such as Caravaggio. (Caravaggio was famous for his dark, dramatically lit works and un-idealised models. Copies of his paintings spread all over Europe.) In 1617, Velázquez finished his apprenticeship and was granted the right to set up his own studio. A year later, he married Pacheco's daughter Juana and by 1621, the couple had two daughters. During his early years in Seville, Velázquez produced traditional religious works such as The Immaculate Conception or Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos, and 'bodegones' - litera...
In 1623, thanks to his father-in-law's connections, Velázquez was asked to paint a portrait of the young King Philip IV. Philip was so delighted with the result that he immediately appointed Velázquez as one of his court painters, and from then on would allow no one else to paint him. The move to the royal court in Madrid allowed Velázquez access to the impressive royal collection. Velázquez studied the Italian paintings, particularly those by Venetian artists such as Titian. When Rubens arrived in Madrid on a diplomatic mission in 1628, the two artists became well acquainted. In 1629, Velázquez obtained permission to visit Italy himself and study Italian painting. He also sought out new paintings to buy on behalf of the King. The National Gallery's Christ Contemplated by the Christian Soulwas painted shortly after his return in 1631. Its loosely painted technique shows a distinctly Venetian influence.
Velázquez was not just successful as a painter. From his arrival he had continued to rise up the ranks in the royal household. In 1636 he was made Assistant to the Wardrobe - a position of trust and responsibility. He continued to be busy with commissions however, producing paintings for the new Palacio del Buen Retiro, and other residencies. A large proportion of his work was made up of royal portraits of the king and his family including the queen, their children, and their court jesters and dwarfs. In 1643 Velázquez was promoted again, to Gentleman of the Bedchamber. He was also made superintendent of the palace works. In 1647 he was put in charge of a project to modernise the old Alcázar palace. In 1649 Velázquez made a second journey to Italy to buy paintings and keep himself up-to-date with developments in Italian art. While there he painted several portraits, including one of Pope Innocent X. He also had an affair resulting in an illegitimate child which considerably delayed...
The 17th century was the 'Siglo de Oro' or 'Golden Age' for art and literature in Spain. Velázquez painted while Cervantes wrote 'Don Quixote' and Lope de Vega wrote his plays. This was despite the religious and political wars that drained the Spanish economy, and the devastating outbreaks of plague. Velázquez was promoted to increasingly senior administrative positions which left him less time for painting. His son-in-law, Juan Bautista Martinez de Mazo became increasingly involved in helping out by making official copies of his pictures. Velázquez's close relationship with the king and his family continued. Having created a group of mythological scenes for the Alcázar palace, the artist's last years were mostly taken up with royal portraits such as the Gallery's Philip IV of Spain. In his most famous work, 'Las Meninas' (The Maids of Honour) he shows himself at work in the court. In 1658 Velázquez was made a Knight of Santiago. It was an honour he had always desired and his badge...
- Las Meninas as culmination of themes in Velázquez
Las Meninas ArtistDiego Velázquez Year1656 MediumOil on canvas Dimensions318 cm × 276 cm LocationMuseo del Prado, Madrid Las Meninas is a 1656 painting in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age. Its complex and enigmatic composition raises questions about reality and illusion, and creates an uncertain relationship between the viewer and the figures depicted. Because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely...
In 17th-century Spain, painters rarely enjoyed high social status. Painting was regarded as a craft, not an art such as poetry or music. Nonetheless, Velázquez worked his way up through the ranks of the court of Philip IV, and in February 1651 was appointed palace ...
The painting was referred to in the earliest inventories as La Familia. A detailed description of Las Meninas, which provides the identification of several of the figures, was published by Antonio Palomino in 1724. Examination under infrared light reveals minor pentimenti, that i
A thorough technical investigation including a pigment analysis of Las Meninas was conducted around 1981 in Museo Prado. The analysis revealed the usual pigments of the baroque period frequently used by Velázquez in his other paintings. The main pigments used for this ...
Las Meninas is set in Velázquez's studio in Philip IV's Alcázar palace in Madrid. The high-ceilinged room is presented, in the words of Silvio Gaggi, as "a simple box that could be divided into a perspective grid with a single vanishing point". In the centre of the ...
The painted surface is divided into quarters horizontally and sevenths vertically; this grid is used to organise the elaborate grouping of characters, and was a common device at the time. Velázquez presents nine figures—eleven if the king and queen's reflected images are ...
The spatial structure and positioning of the mirror's reflection are such that Philip IV and Mariana appear to be standing on the viewer's side of the pictorial space, facing the Infanta and her entourage. According to Janson, not only is the gathering of figures in the foregroun
The elusiveness of Las Meninas, according to Dawson Carr, "suggests that art, and life, are an illusion". The relationship between illusion and reality were central concerns in Spanish culture during the 17th century, figuring largely in Don Quixote, the best-known work of Spanish Baroque literature. In this respect, Calderón de la Barca's play Life is a Dream is commonly seen as the literary equivalent of Velázquez's painting
Many aspects of Las Meninas relate to earlier works by Velázquez in which he plays with conventions of representation. In the Rokeby Venus—his only surviving nude—the face of the subject is visible, blurred beyond any realism, in a mirror. The angle of the mirror is such that although "often described as looking at herself, is more disconcertingly looking at us". In the early Christ in the House of Martha and Mary of 1618, Christ and his companions are seen only through a serving hatch ...
In 1692, the Neapolitan painter Luca Giordano became one of the few allowed to view paintings held in Philip IV's private apartments, and was greatly impressed by Las Meninas. Giordano described the work as the "theology of painting", and was inspired to paint A Homage to Velázquez. By the early 18th century his oeuvre was gaining international recognition, and later in the century British collectors ventured to Spain in search of acquisitions. Since the popularity of Italian art was then ...
Autorretrato de Velázquez en Las Meninas.Self-portrait circa 1650 date QS:P,+1650-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P1480,Q5727902. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Spain.So-calledlabel QS:Len,"So-called"label QS:Lpl,"Tzw."Self-portrait Florence, Uffizi Gallery, «It does not seem to be a likeness of Velazquez or by his hand» (López-Rey). Rejected by all specialists.An ecclesiastic Rome, Capitoline Museums. Regarded as a self-portrait by Curtis. Surely not by Velazquez.Maria Anna of Spainlabel QS:Les,"Doña María de Austria, reina de Hungría"label QS:Lpl,"Maria Anna"label QS:Len,"Maria Anna of Spain"1630, Madrid, Prado MuseumInfanta María Teresalabel QS:Les,"Infanta María Teresa"label QS:Lde,"Infantin María Teresa"label QS:Len,"Infanta María Teresa"label QS:Lpl,"Infantka Maria Teresa"1652-53Felipe III on horsebacklabel QS:Les,"Felipe III a caballo"label QS:Lpl,"Filip III na koniu"label QS:Len,"Felipe III on horseback"1634-35, Madrid, Prado MuseumFelipe IV in brown and silverlabel QS:Les,"Felipe IV en marrón y plata"label QS:Lpl,"Filip IV w brązie i srebrze"label QS:Len,"Felipe IV in brown and silver"1632, London, National GalleryOld woman frying eggslabel QS:Les,"Vieja friendo huevos"label QS:Lpl,"Stara kucharka"label QS:Len,"Old woman frying eggs" 1618, National Gallery, EdinburghAdoration of the Magi 1619, Madrid, Prado MuseumThe triumph of Bacchus (The drunks)label QS:Les,"El triunfo de Baco (Los Borrachos)"label QS:Lde,"Die Trunkenbolde oder Der Triumph des Bacchus"label QS:Len,"The triumph of Bacchus (The drunks)"lab...Apollo in the Forge of Vulcanlabel QS:Les,"La fragua de Vulcano"label QS:Lpl,"Apollo w kuźni Wulkana"label QS:Len,"Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan"1630, Madrid, Prado Museum
- Portraits of Diego Velázquez
- Other Works
- 6 June 1599 (baptised)
- Spanish painter
- 7 August 1660
- Early life
- Conquest of Cuba
- Conquest of Mexico
- Later life
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador and the first governor of Cuba. In 1511 he led the successful conquest and colonization of Cuba. As the first governor of the island, he established several municipalities that remain important to this day and positioned Cuba as a center of trade and a staging point for expeditions of conquest elsewhere. From Cuba he chartered important expeditions that led to the Spanish discovery and conquest of Mexico.
Little is known about the early life of Velázquez. He was born in Cuéllar around 1465, in the Segovia region of Spain. For a time he was a member of the Spanish military and served in Naples. Afterwards he returned to Spain and lived in Seville. In September 1493, Velázquez was one of 1500 men who sailed with Columbus on his second voyage to the New World. Velázquez never returned to Spain. Velázquez settled on the island of Hispaniola and survived the early hardships which killed many ...
When Diego Columbus became governor in 1509, he was instructed by King Ferdinand to explore, conquer, and colonize the neighboring island of Cuba in hopes of obtaining new sources of gold and Native labor. Miguel de Pasamonte, the king's treasurer in the Caribbean, was influential in seeing that Columbus selected Velásquez to lead the expedition. Velásquez was to finance the project himself and though Columbus assured him that the Crown would reimburse him later, no money was ever ...
In 1514, Velázquez wrote to the king concerning rumors of unknown lands to the north and west of Cuba. Initially, these rumors were merely the subject of idle speculation and the king instructed Velázquez to remain focused on the governance of Cuba and especially the production of gold. However, as the demand for labor grew, slaving expeditions explored the region in search of natives to work the Cuban ranches and gold mines. Interest in exploration and conquest intensified in 1516 when a ...
Velázquez spent the remaining few years of his life defending his governorship in Cuba and continuing his dispute with Cortes. Diego Colón perhaps sensed that Velázquez was politically vulnerable; he sent Alonso Zuazo to Cuba in January, 1521, to replace the governor and conduct his residencia. However, Colon himself was in political difficulties and under investigation by the Crown. Finally, by July, 1523, Colon was recalled to Spain and Velázquez was fully restored to office. In 1522 ...
Apolo en la Fragua de Vulcano (1630) - Sơn dầu trên vải, 223 x 290 cm, Museo del Prado, MadridCristo en casa de Marta y María (1618) - Sơn dầu trên vải, 63 x 103.5 cm, National Gallery, Luân ĐônCristo crucificado (1631) - Sơn dầu trên vải, 248 x 169 cm, Museo del Prado, MadridEl Triunfo de Baco (Los borrachos) (1628 - 1629) - Sơn dầu trên vải, 165 x 225 cm, Museo del Prado, MadridBrown, Dale (1969). The World of Velázquez: 1599–1660. New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0809402521.Brown, Johnathan (1986) Velázquez: Painter and Courtier Yale University Press, New Haven, ISBN 0-300-03466-0;Brown, Jonathan (1978) Images and Ideas in Seventeenth-Century Spanish Painting Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, ISBN 0-691-03941-0;Brown, Johnathan (2008) Collected writings on Velázquez, CEEH & Yale University Press, New Haven, ISBN 978-0-300-14493-2.Tác phẩm của Diego Velázquez[liên kết hỏng]
- Các Tác Phẩm Tiêu Biểu
- Hình Ảnh
- Đọc Thêm
- Liên Kết Ngoài
Diego Velázquez was a Spanish master of the 17th century. Although many of his paintings exude elements of the then contemporary Baroque style, his career was a wide ranging one in which he developed a distinctly individual style.