- The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg ( German: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg ), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany.
People also ask
Who was duke of brunswick?
What is the Duchy of Brunswick?
What does Brunswick Luneburg mean?
How did the Dukedom of Brunswick get its name?
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg. The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a ...
Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern (25 September 1718, Wolfenbüttel – 12 May 1788, Eisenach) was a field-marshal in the armies of the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic, the elected Duke of Courland (1741).
Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg, also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. He was the Prince of Lüneburg and ruled the Lüneburg-Celle subdivision of the Welf family's Brunswick-Lüneburg duchy from 1520 until his death. He was the son of Henry I, Duke of Lüneburg, and Margarete of Saxony, the daughter of Ernest, Elector of Saxony.
Ernest was born in Uelzen of the House of Guelph on 27 June 1497. His father was Henry I of Lüneburg and his mother Margarete of Saxony who was a sister of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony and Champion of Martin Luther. Ernest succeeded as Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg upon the retirement of his brother Otto in 1527. Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, married Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and he died on 11 January 1547 at the age of 49. Ernest's life coincided with the Protestant ...
Ernest married Sophia, daughter of Henry V, Duke of Mecklenburg and Ursula of Brandenburg, on 2 June 1528 in Schwerin. They had the following children who reached adulthood: 1. Francis Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, married Elisabeth Magdalena of Brandenburg, daughter of Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg and Hedwig of Poland. 2. Frederick 3. Henry III, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg married Ursula of Saxe-Lauenberg, daughter of Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg 4. Margaret, married John ...
Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, called the Younger,, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1514 until his death. The last Catholic of the Welf princes, he was known for the large number of wars in which he was involved and for the long-standing affair with his mistress Eva von Trott.
He was born at Wolfenbüttel Castle, the son of Duke Henry IV of Brunswick-Lüneburg, known as Henry the Elder, and his consort Catherine, a daughter of the Griffin duke Eric II of Pomerania. His father had received the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in the course of a subdivision of the Brunswick lands in 1495. Henry V succeeded as ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel when his father was killed in a 1514 battle during the Saxon feud. He soon entered into the Great Diocesan Feud with the ...
Henry firstly married Maria, daughter of Henry, Count of Württemberg, former Count of Montbéliard, in 1515. They had the following children: 1. Margaret, married John of Poděbrady, Duke of Münsterberg and Oels, in 1561 2. Andrew 3. Catherine, married Margrave John of Brandenburg-Küstrin, son of Elector Joachim I Nestor of Brandenburg in 1537 4. Mary, became Abbess of Gandersheim in 1532 5. Charles Victor, killed in the Battle of Sievershausen 6. Philip, killed in the Battle of ...
- Early years
- League with Denmark
- Later life and death
Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. He is called Otto the Child to distinguish him from his uncle, Emperor Otto IV.
Otto was born around 1204 as the only son of William of Winchester and his wife Helena, a daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark. His father was the youngest son of Henry the Lion, the former duke of Saxony who had been deposed by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1180. By a 1202 agreement with his brothers Count Palatine Henry V and King Otto IV, William had received the Welfs' allodial properties in Saxony around Lüneburg. Otto was still a minor, when he inherited his ...
To be prepared against any future attempt of the same kind, Otto judged it prudent at this time to enter into a treaty with his maternal uncle King Valdemar II of Denmark, by which they respectively bound themselves to support each other against all enemies whatsoever. This treaty was in the end most injurious to the states of Brunswick. Otto was made count of Garding and Thetesbüll by King Valdemar, and participated in the Battle of Mölln of 1225 and the Battle of Bornhöved of 1227 on ...
It is alleged by some that the duke of Brunswick was well-inclined to enter into the views of the pope, but that he found he could neither raise men nor money sufficient to warrant even a probability of success. This is doubtful, for had Otto been ambitious, he might have obtained the empire without much difficulty; and supported as he was by England and Denmark, it is not likely that he could have been at a loss for an army, or for the means of supporting it. As a proof that Otto had the full c
King William had intimated to the princes of Germany his desire to meet them in a general diet at Frankfurt against the Feast of St. John the Baptist, 1252; he was preparing to leave Brunswick with his father-in-law for the purpose of being present at this assembly when Otto was suddenly taken unwell and expired on 9 June. Otto is buried in Brunswick Cathedral. He is the male-line ancestor of all later members of the House of Welf.
Otto married Matilda, daughter of Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg, around 1228. They had the following known children: 1. Elisabeth, married William II of Holland 2. Helen, married Albert I, Duke of Saxony and Hermann II, Landgrave of Thuringia 3. Adelaide, married Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse 4. Matilda, married Henry II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben 5. Agnes, married Wizlaw II, Duke of Rügen 6. Albert I 7. John 8. Otto, Bishop of Hildesheim 9. Conrad of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Prince ...
William VI (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592), called William the Younger ( German: Wilhelm der Jüngere ), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1559 until his death. Until 1569 he ruled together with his brother, Henry of Dannenberg . William was the son of Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Otto V, called the Victorious or the Magnanimous (1439 – 9 January 1471, German: Otto der Siegreiche, der Großmütige), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1457 to his death. He shared the principality with his brother, Bernard, until Bernard's death in 1464.
Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the son of Otto V of Lüneburg and Anna of Nassau, was born in 1468. In 1486, Henry took control of Lüneburg from his mother, who had been regent since the death of Henry’s grandfather, Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources.
- History of The Subordinate Principalities
- Duchy of Brunswick
- Dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg
- See Also
- External Links
When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was then allowed to stay on the (allodial) estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly. In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession o...
The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. The subordinate states that were repeatedly created, and which had the legal status of principalities, were generally named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old, Middle and New Houses (or Lines) of Brunswick, and the Old, Middle and New Houses of Lüneburg. The number of simultaneously reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five.
The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 turned it into an independent state under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from taking control, instead installing a regent. Decades later, the families were reconciled by the marriage of the Crown Prince's son to the Emperor's only daughter, and the Emperor allowed his son-in-law to assume rule (his father having renounced his own right).
The following dukes ruled the entire duchy before it was sub-divided: All the Welf lines continued to bear the title of "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" from the division of the dukedom in 1269 to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. This was in addition to their actual territorial lordship e.g. as the "Prince of Lüneburg".