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  1. Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Concurrently, he was Lord of Ireland, and from 1254 to 1306, he ruled Gascony as Duke of Aquitaine in his capacity as a vassal of the French king.

  2. Edward I, byname Edward Longshanks, (born June 17, 1239, Westminster, Middlesex, England—died July 7, 1307, Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle, Cumberland), son of Henry III and king of England in 1272–1307, during a period of rising national consciousness. He strengthened the crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility.

    • Second Baron's War & Succession
    • Personal Life
    • Subjugation of Wales
    • Administration in England
    • Attacks on Scotland
    • Death & Successor

    Prince Edward was born on 17 or 18 June 1239 CE, the eldest son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence (1223-1291 CE). Known for his fiery temper and self-confidence, Edward was nicknamed 'Longshanks' because of his height – 1.9 metres (6 ft. 2 inches), an unusually impressive stature for medieval times. He was strong, athletic, and as goo...

    Edward married Eleanor of Castile (b. c. 1242 CE) in October 1254 CE when she was 12 and he was just 15 years old but the match worked out well. Eleanor even accompanied her husband on his crusade and when she died in 1290 CE, Edward suffered her loss greatly. The passage of her coffin from Lincoln to London was commemorated by the setting up of 12...

    Henry III's string of military defeats in Wales (1228, 1231, and 1232 CE) had led to Henry conferring on Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223-1282 CE) the title of Prince of Wales. The Welshman's independence was further asserted when he refused to attend Edward's coronation in 1274 CE. The new king was rather better at warfare than his father had been, t...

    Edward attempted to avoid the errors of his predecessors by ensuring his home base of England was secure. The king made sure that the barons and their rights were protected, and that local administration was improved through a land survey (1274-5 CE) and better record-keeping (the Hundred Rolls). The 1275 CE the Statute of Westminster encoded 51 ne...

    Edward was not content with ruling England and Wales but also set his sights on Scotland. The English king had hoped to gain control of Scotland via peaceful means when he arranged for his son to marry Margaret, the Maid of Norway who was the granddaughter and heir of King Alexander III of Scotland (r. 1249-1286 CE). Unfortunately, these plans came...

    Edward died of illness, probably dysentery, aged 68 on 7 July 1307 CE at Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle when about to engage in yet another campaign against the Scots. He was buried at Westminster Abbey and, at his own command, his tomb was inscribed with the following legend: 'Edward I, Hammer of the Scots. Keep the Faith'. He was succeeded by his ...

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  3. › summary › Edward-I-king-of-EnglandEdward I summary | Britannica

    Edward I, known as Edward Longshanks, (born June 17, 1239, Westminster, Middlesex, Eng.—died July 7, 1307, Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle, Cumberland), King of England (1272–1307). The eldest son of Henry III, he supported his father in a civil war with the barons, but his violent temper contributed to Henry’s defeat at the Battle of Lewes (1264).

  4. Edward I 'Longshanks' (r. 1272-1307) Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, Eleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts ...

  5. › HistoryofEngland › Edward-IEdward I - Historic UK

    Edward I, known by many names including, ‘Edward Longshanks’, ‘Hammer of the Scots’ and ‘English Justinian’, reigned as King of England from 1272 until 1307. Edward I was born in June 1239 at the Palace of Westminster, son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.

  6. Edward I (1272–1307) Edward was in many ways the ideal medieval king. He went through a difficult apprenticeship, was a good fighter, and was a man who enjoyed both war and statecraft. His crusading reputation gave him prestige, and his chivalric qualities were admired.

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