Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (/ ˈ m ɑːr k ɔː s /, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986, widely considered by academics, economists, and journalists as a kleptocrat.
Sep 24, 2021 · Ferdinand Marcos, in full Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, (born September 11, 1917, Sarrat, Philippines—died September 28, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.), Philippine lawyer and politician who, as head of state from 1966 to 1986, established an authoritarian regime in the Philippines that came under criticism for corruption and for its suppression of democratic processes.
Apr 02, 2014 · Ferdinand Marcos, born on September 11, 1917, in Ilocos Norte province, was a member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and Senate (1959-1965) before winning the presidential ...
- Early Life
- Assassinates Nalundasan
- World War II
- Post-War Era
- Rise to Power
- Cult of Personality
- Martial Law
- Presidential Election of 1981
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on Sept. 11, 1917, to Mariano and Josefa Marcos in the village of Sarrat, on the island of Luzon, the Philippines. Persistent rumors say that Ferdinand's biological father was a man named Ferdinand Chua, who served as his godfather. Officially, however, Josefa's husband Mariano Marcos was the child's father. Young Ferdinand Marcos grew up in a privileged milieu. He excelled at school and took an eager interest in things like boxing and shooting.
Marcos attended school in Manila. His godfather Ferdinand Chua may have helped pay for his educational expenses. During the 1930s, the young man studied law at the University of the Philippines, outside of Manila. This legal training would come in handy when Marcos was arrested and tried for a 1935 political murder. In fact, he continued his studies while in prison and even passed the bar exam with flying colors from his cell. Meanwhile, Mariano Marcos ran for a seat on the National Assembly in 1935 but was defeated for a second time by Julio Nalundasan.
On Sept. 20, 1935, as he was celebrating his victory over Marcos, Nalundasan was shot dead at his home. Ferdinand, then 18, had used his shooting skills to kill Nalundasan with a .22-caliber rifle. Marcos was indicted for the killing and convicted by a district court in November of 1939. He appealed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines in 1940. Representing himself, Marcos managed to get his conviction overturned despite strong evidence of his guilt. Mariano Marcos and (by now) Judge Chua may have used their political power to influence the outcome of the case.
At the outbreak of World War II, Marcos was practicing law in Manila. He soon joined the Filipino Army and fought against the Japanese invasion as a combat intelligence officer in the 21st Infantry Division. Marcos saw action in the three-month-long Battle of Bataan, in which the Allied forces lost Luzon to the Japanese. He survived the Bataan Death March, a week-long ordeal that killed about a quarter of Japan's American and Filipino POWs on Luzon. Marcos escaped the prison camp and joined the resistance. He later claimed to have been a guerrilla leader, but that claim has been disputed.
Detractors say that Marcos spent the early post-war period filing false compensation claims for wartime damages with the United States government, such as a claim for almost $600,000 for 2,000 imaginary cattle of Mariano Marcos'. Marcos also served as a special assistant to the first president of the newly independent Republic of the Philippines, Manuel Roxas, from 1946 to 1947. Marcos served in the Philippines House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Senate from 1963 to 1965 as a member of Roxas' Liberal Party.
In 1965, Marcos hoped to secure the Liberal Party nomination for the presidency. The sitting president, Diosdado Macapagal (father of current president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo), had promised to step aside, but he reneged and ran again. Marcos resigned from the Liberal Party and joined the Nationalists. He won the election and was sworn in on December 30, 1965. President Marcos promised economic development, improved infrastructure, and good government to the people of the Philippines. He also pledged help to South Vietnam and the U.S. in the Vietnam War, sending more than 10,000 Filipino soldiers to fight.
Ferdinand Marcos was the first president to be reelected to a second term in the Philippines. Whether his reelection was rigged is a subject of debate. In any case, he consolidated his hold on power by developing a cult of personality, like those of Joseph Stalin or Mao Zedong. Marcos required every business and classroom in the country to display his official presidential portrait. He also posted giant billboards bearing propagandistic messages across the country. A handsome man, Marcos had married former beauty queen Imelda Romualdez in 1954. Her glamour added to his popularity.
Within weeks of his reelection, Marcos faced violent public protests against his rule by students and other citizens. Students demanded educational reforms; they even commandeered a fire truck and crashed it into the Presidential Palace in 1970. The Filipino Communist Party reemerged as a threat. Meanwhile, a Muslim separatist movement in the south urged succession. President Marcos responded to all of these threats by declaring martial law on September 21, 1972. He suspended habeas corpus, imposed a curfew, and jailed opponents like Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. This period of martial law lasted until January 1981.
Under martial law, Marcos took extraordinary powers for himself. He used the country's military as a weapon against his political enemies, displaying a typically ruthless approach to opposition. Marcos also awarded a huge number of government posts to his and Imelda's relatives. Imelda herself was a member of Parliament (1978-84); Governor of Manila (1976-86); and Minister of Human Settlements (1978-86). Marcos called parliamentary elections on April 7, 1978. None of the members of jailed former Senator Benigno Aquino's LABAN party won their races. Election monitors cited widespread vote-buying by Marcos loyalists. In preparation for Pope John Paul II's visit, Marcos lifted martial law on Jan. 17, 1981. Nonetheless, Marcos pushed through legislative and Constitutional reforms to ensure that he would retain all of his extended powers. It was purely a cosmetic change.
For the first time in 12 years, the Philippines held a presidential election on June 16, 1981. Marcos ran against two opponents: Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party and Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party. LABAN and Unido both boycotted the election. Marcos received 88% of the vote. He took the opportunity in his inauguration ceremony to note that he would like the job of "Eternal President."
- Kallie Szczepanski
- History Expert
- Early Political Career
- Martial Law and The New Society
- 1981 Presidential Election and The Fourth Republic
- External Links
After the end of the war and the establishment of the Republic, President Manuel A. Roxas appointed Marcos as special technical assistant. Later, Marcos ran as Representative (of the 2nd district of Ilocos Norte) under the Liberal Party – the administration party. During the campaign he told his constituents “Elect me a Congressman now and I pledge you an Ilocano President in 20 years.” He was elected thrice as Congressman. In 1959 he was catapulted to the Senate with the highest number of votes. He immediately became its Minority Floor Leader. In 1963, after a tumultuous rigodon in the Senate, he was elected its President despite being in the minority party President Diosdado Macapagal, who had promised not to run for reelection and to support Marcos’ candidacy for the presidency in the 1965 elections, reneged on his promise. Marcos then resigned from the Liberal Party. With the support of his wife Imelda Romualdez Marcos, he joined the Nacionalista Party and became its standard-be...
Marcos defeated Macapagal and was sworn in as the sixth President of the Republic on December 30, 1965. In his first State of the Nation Address (SONA), President Marcos revealed his plans for economic development and good government. President Marcos wanted the immediate construction of roads, bridges and public works which includes 16,000 kilometers of feeder roads, some 30,000 lineal meters of permanent bridges, a generator with an electric power capacity of on million kilowatts (1,000,000...
In 1969, President Marcos was reelected for an unprecedented second term because of his impressive performance or, as his critics claimed, because of massive vote-buying and electoral frauds. The second term proved to be a daunting challenge to the President: an economic crisis brought by external and internal forces; a restive and radicalized studentry demanding reforms in the educational system; rising tide of criminality and subversion by the re-organized Communist movement; and secessioni...
Proclamation of martial law
The spate of bombings and subversive activities led President Marcos to declare that: On September 21, 1972 President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1081 placing the entire country under martial law but it was announced only two days later. In proclaiming martial law, President Marcos assured the public that “the proclamation of martial law is not a military takeover”and that civilian government still functions. Initial measures- In his first address to the nation after issuing P...
The 1973 Constitution
The 1973 Constitution – On March 16, 1967, the Philippine Congress passed Resolution No. 2 calling for a Constitutional Convention to change the Constitution. Election of the delegates to the Convention were held on November 20, 1970 pursuant to Republic Act No. 6132, otherwise known as the “1970 Constitutional Convention Act.” The Constitutional Convention formally began on June 1, 1971. Former President Carlos P. Garcia, a delegate from Bohol, was elected President. Unfortunately he died on...
1976 Amendments to the Constitution
On October 16-17, 1976 majority of barangay voters (Citizen Assemblies) approved that martial law should be continued and ratified the amendments to the Constitution proposed by President Marcos. The 1976 Amendments were: an Interim Batasang Pambansa (IBP) substituting for the Interim National Assembly, the President would also become the Prime Minister and he would continue to exercise legislative powers until martial law should have been lifted. The Sixth Amendment authorized the President...
On June 16, 1981, six months after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. As to be expected, President Marcos run and won a massive victory over the other candidates – Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party (Roy Wing) and Cebu Assemblyman Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party. The major opposition parties, Unido (United Democratic Opposition, a coalition of opposition parties, headed by Salvador Laurel) and Laban, boycotted the elections. In an almost one-sided election, President Marcos won an overwhelming 88 percent of the votes, the highest in Philippine electoral history. The Nacionalista candidate Alejo Santos garnered only 8.6 percent of the votes and Cabangbang obtained less than 3 percent. On June 30, 1981, President Marcos was inaugurated in grandiose ceremonies and proclaimed the “birth of a new Republic.” The new Republic lasted only for less than five years. Economic and political crises led to its demise.
President Marcos's official Malacañang Palace portrait since 1986; the portrait he had selected for himself was lost during the People Power Revolution Prior to Marcos, Philippine presidents had followed the path of "traditional politics" by using their position to help along friends and allies before stepping down for the next "player." Marcos essentially destroyed this setup through military rule, which allowed him to rewrite the rules of the game so they favored the Marcoses and their allies. His practice of using the politics of patronage in his desire to be the "amo" or godfather of not just the people, but the judiciary, legislature and administrative branches of the government ensured his downfall, no matter how Marcos justified it according to his own philosophy of the "politics of achievement." This practice entailed bribery, racketeering, and embezzlement to gain the support of the aforementioned sectors. The 14 years of his dictatorship, according to critics, have warped...Today's Revolution: Democracy(1971)Marcos' Notes for the Cancun Summit, 1981(1981)Progress and Martial Law(1981)The New Philippine Republic: A Third World Approach to Democracy(1982)Abaya, Hernando. The Making of a Subversive: a Memoir. Quezon City: New Day, 1984. ISBN 9711001543Aquino, Belinda (ed.). Cronies and Enemies: the Current Philippine Scene.University of Hawaii, 1982.Bonner, Raymond. Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. New York: Times Books, 1987. ISBN 0812913264Celoza, Albert F. Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997. ISBN 027594137X
All links retrieved January 21, 2021. 1. Hunt for tyrant's millions leads to former model's home The Sydney Morning Herald, July 4, 2004. 2. Philippines loses out on Marcos millions BBC News, February 1, 2002. 3. Philippine cult idolises Marcos BBC News, December 8, 1999. 4. Philandering dictator added Hollywood star to conquests The Sydney Morning Herald, July 4, 2004. 5. Philippines blast wrecks Marcos bust BBC News, December 29, 2002. 6. Was Ferdinand Marcos the Best President of the Philippines?Emmanuel Alejandro.
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in Sarrat, a village in the Ilocos North region of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. His parents, Josefa Edralin and Mariano Marcos, were both teachers from important families.