Franz Joseph was crowned King of Hungary on 8 June, and on 28 July he promulgated the laws that officially turned the Habsburg domains into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. According to Emperor Franz Joseph, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."
- Early Life
- Accession to The Throne
- Major Contributions
- Personal Life and Death
Franz Joseph I was born on August 18, 1830, in Vienna’s Schonbrunn Palace. He was the firstborn son of Franz Karl (the Archduke and son of Francis II) and Archduchess Sophie. His uncle, Emperor Ferdinand, was the reigning emperor at the time. Because the emperor was not so strong-minded, Franz Joseph’s mother decided to bring up his son as the future leader and emperor, with the main focus on diligence, devotion, and responsibility. When Franz turned 13 years, he joined the Austrian army as a colonel. From then until his death, he always wore the military uniform. In April 1848, he was appointed the Governor of Bohemia but never took up the post. Instead, he joined a military campaign in Italy.
While Franz was in Italy, his family flee the revolutionary Vienna to Innsbruck. In June 1848, he joined his family in Innsbruck where he first met Elisabeth, who later became his wife. Franz and the court traveled back to Vienna after Austria’s win over the Italian forces in July 1848. However, Vienna again became unsafe and the court left in September for Olomouc, Moravia. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne and Franz succeeded him as the new Emperor of Austria.
As a new emperor and with the help of Prime Minister Prince Schwarzenberg, Franz Joseph was able to grant a new constitution in 1849. He also led a military campaign against Hungarians who were rebelling against Habsburg's central authority. He was also faced with renewed fighting in Italy. With the help of the Russian troops, Franz crushed the revolution in Hungary and restored order throughout the Empire. Soon, Austria began a recovery of its position on the international scene. One of the main foreign policies of Franz was to unite Germany under the House of Habsburg. However, his desire to retain the non-German Austrian Empire proved problematic. Two factions immediately emerged; one supporting Greater Germany and the other supporting Lesser Germany. The contest between the two factions led to the Seven Weeks War which was won by the Prussians and Austria was excluded in the unification of Germany. Franz Joseph is also credit for starting World War I when Austro-Hungary declared...
Franz Joseph married Elisabeth of Bavaria in April 1854 in Vienna, with whom he fathered two children, Sophie and Rudolf. Although Franz loved his wife, Elisabeth did not feel the same. The Emperor met and fell in love with Katharina Schratt, a relationship that was tolerated by the wife. Franz Joseph died on November 16, 1916, in Schonbrunn Palace from pneumonia.
- John Misachi
Franz Joseph, also called Francis Joseph, (born August 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna, Austria—died November 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn), emperor of Austria (1848–1916) and king of Hungary (1867–1916), who divided his empire into the Dual Monarchy, in which Austria and Hungary coexisted as equal partners.
Franz Joseph I was the longest-reigning emperor of Austria and the king of Hungary. He ruled over the kingdoms from 1848 to 1916, until his death. He was also the third-longest-reigning ruler in the history of Europe, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein.
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia, and monarch of other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 until his death....
Franz Joseph I (18 August 1830-21 November 1916) was Emperor of the Austrian Empire from 2 December 1846 to 30 March 1867 (succeeding Ferdinand I) and Emperor of Austria-Hungary from 30 March 1867 to 21 November 1916 (preceding Charles I).
- Early Life
- Domestic Policy
- Foreign Policy
- Outbreak of World War I
- Titles, Styles and Honours
- Personal Motto
His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I. Ferenc Józsefin Hungarian. His names in other languages were: 1. Croatian and Bosnian: Franjo Josip I. 2. Czech: František Josef I. 3. Italian: Francesco Giuseppe I. 4. Polish: Franciszek Józef I. 5. Ukrainian: Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, (Frantz Yosyf I) 6. Romanian: Francisc Iosif(no number used) 7. Slovene: Franc Jožef I. 8. Slovak: František Jozef I. 9. Spanish: Francisco José I. 10. Serbian: Фрања Јосиф(no number used)
Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl (the younger son of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II), and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, and his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion, responsibility and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he normally wore the uniform of a military officer. Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832, the future Emperor Maximilian of Mexico); Archduke Karl Ludwig (born 1833, and the father of Arch...
Under the guidance of the new prime minister Prince Schwarzenberg, the new emperor at first pursued a cautious course, granting a constitution in early 1849. At the same time, a military campaign was necessary against the Hungarians, who had rebelled against Habsburg central authority in the name of their ancient liberties. Franz Joseph was also almost immediately faced with a renewal of the fighting in Italy, with King Charles Albert of Sardinia taking advantage of setbacks in Hungary to resume the war in March 1849. However, the military tide began to swiftly turn in favor of Franz Joseph and the Austrian whitecoats[clarification needed]. Almost immediately, Charles Albert was decisively beaten by Radetzky at Novara and forced to sue for peace, as well as renounce his throne. In Hungary, the situation was more severe and Austrian defeat seemed imminent. Sensing a need to secure his right to rule, he sought help from Russia, requesting the intervention of Tsar Nicholas I, in order...
The German Question
The main foreign policy goal of Franz Joseph had been the unification of Germany under the House of Habsburg. This was justified on grounds of precedence; from 1452 to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, with only one period of interruption under the Wittelsbachs, the Habsburgs had generally held the German crown. However, Franz Joseph's desire to retain the non-German territories of the Habsburg Austrian Empire in the event of German unification proved problematic. There quickly develo...
The Three Emperors League
In 1873, two years after the unification of Germany, Franz Joseph entered into the League of Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund) with Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany and Tsar Alexander II of Russia (who was succeeded by Tsar Alexander III in 1881). The league had been designed by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, as an attempt to maintain the peace of Europe. It would last intermittently until 1887.
In 1903, Franz Joseph's veto of Cardinal Rampolla's election to the papacy was transmitted to the Papal conclave by Cardinal Jan Puzyna. It was the last use of such a veto, because the new Pope Pius Xprohibited future uses and provided for excommunication for any attempt.
On 28 June 1914 Franz Joseph's nephew and heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist of Serbian ethnicity,during a visit to Sarajevo. When he heard the news of the assassination, Franz Joseph said that "one has not to defy the Almighty. In this manner a superior power has restored that order which I unfortunately was unable to maintain." While the emperor was shaken, and interrupted his holiday to return to Vienna, he soon resumed his holiday at his imperial villa at Bad Ischl. With the emperor five hours away from the capital, most of the decision-making during the "July Crisis" fell to Count Leopold Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister; Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, the chief of staff for the Austro-Hungarian army, and the other ministers. On 21 July, Franz Joseph was reportedly surprised by the severity of the ultimatum that was to be sent to the Serbs, and expressed hi...
Franz Joseph died in the Schönbrunn Palace on the evening of 21 November 1916, at the age of eighty-six. His death was a result of developing pneumonia of the right lung several days after catching a cold while walking in Schönbrunn Park with the King of Bavaria Ludwig III. He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I, who reigned until the collapse of the Empire following its defeat in 1918. He is buried in the Imperial Cryptin Vienna, where flowers are still left by monarchists.
It was generally felt in the court that the Emperor should marry and produce heirs as soon as possible. Various potential brides were considered: Princess Elisabeth of Modena, Princess Anna of Prussia and Princess Sidonia of Saxony. Although in public life Franz Joseph was the unquestioned director of affairs, in his private life his formidable mother still wielded crucial influence. Sophie wanted to strengthen the relationship between the Houses of Habsburg and Wittelsbach—descending from the latter house herself—and hoped to match Franz Joseph with her sister Ludovika's eldest daughter, Helene ("Néné"), who was four years the Emperor's junior. However, Franz Joseph fell deeply in love with Néné's younger sister Elisabeth ("Sisi"), a beautiful girl of fifteen, and insisted on marrying her instead. Sophie acquiesced, despite her misgivings about Sisi's appropriateness as an imperial consort, and the young couple were married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustine's Church, Vienna. Their...
Titles and styles
1. 18 August 1830 – 2 December 1848: His Imperial and Royal HighnessArchduke and Prince Francis Joseph of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia 2. 2 December 1848 – 21 November 1916: His Imperial and Royal Apostolic MajestyThe Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary His official grand title after the Ausgleich of 1867 was: "Francis Joseph the First, by the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, King of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia...
Austrian decorations 1. He was Grand Master of the following chivalric orders: 1.1. Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden vom Goldenen Vlies, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) 1.2. Military Order of Maria Theresa (Militär Maria-Theresien-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) 1.3. Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Königlich ungarischer St. Stephan-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) 1.4. Order of Leopold (Leopold-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) 1.5. Order of the Iron Crown (...
The archipelago Franz Josef Land in the Russian high Arctic was named in his honour in 1873 by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole expedition which first reported finding it. The Franz Josef Glacierin New Zealand's South Island also bears his name. Franz Joseph founded in 1872 the Franz Joseph University (Hungarian: Ferenc József Tudományegyetem, Romanian: Universitatea Francisc Iosif) in the city of Cluj-Napoca (at that time a part of Austria-Hungary under the name of Kolozsvár). The university was moved to Szeged after Cluj became a part of Romania, becoming the University of Szeged. In certain areas, celebrations are still being held in remembrance of Franz Joseph's birthday. The Mitteleuropean People's Festival takes place every year around 18 August, and is a "spontaneous, traditional and brotherly meeting among peoples of the Central-European Countries". The event includes ceremonies, meetings, music, songs, dances, wine and food tasting, and traditional costumes and folklore from..."mit vereinten Kräften" (German) = "Viribus Unitis" (Latin) = "With united forces" (as the Emperor of Austria). A homonymous war shipexisted."Bizalmam az Ősi Erényben" (Hungarian) = "Virtutis Confido" (Latin) = "My trust in [the ancient] virtue" (as the Apostolic King of Hungary)
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I, Franz Joseph Karl, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916, was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary,... Kaiser von Österreich 1848-1916König von Ungarn seit-1867in jungen JahrenLithographie 1949
- Personal Life
- Becoming Emperor
- The Era of Absolutism
- Reforms and Defeats
- The Austro-Hungarian Compromise
- The Upsurge of Nationalism
- Franz Joseph and Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Conflicts with Bosnia-Herzegovina and The Outbreak of World War I
- Death and Legacy
As a child Franz Joseph worshipped his grandfather, who died when he was almost five years old. He had three younger brothers – Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832), Archduke Karl Ludwig (born 1833) and Archduke Ludwig Viktor (born 1842). His sister, Maria Anna, passed away when she was only four. Franz Joseph’s childhood was brief – at age 13 he had already taken up the position of colonel in the Austrian army, for which he fought on the Front in Italy during May of 1848. Soon, though, he joined his family in Innsbruck, where they had taken refuge from the demonstrations and rebellions in Vienna. He first met his future wife, his cousin Elisabeth, in Innsbruck, when he was 10 years old, though he was not yet smitten by her.
When Elisabeth was 16, he fell in love with her and married her in Vienna on April 24, 1854. However, the marriage was fraught with tensions that were both personal and political; they were by no means the ideal couple. To make matters worse, their first daughter Sophie died at a young age, and their only son Rudolf killed himself. They had two other daughters, Gisela and Marie Valerie. His wife, nicknamed Sisi, was assassinated by an Italian anarchist in 1898, an event which emotionally crushed Franz Joseph. In 1885, though, Franz Joseph had taken actress Katharina Schratt as his mistress and felt justified in securing Schratt for himself due to his wife’s physical and emotional distance.
The family finally fled to Olomouc in Moravia during the troubled days of 1848. It was in Olomouc on December 2, 1848 that Franz Joseph became Emperor at the early age of 18. His uncle, Ferdinand I, had abdicated to try to put a halt to the revolutions in which people advocated democracy and participation in government and expressed their discontent with political leaders. Another significant factor – one that would affect Franz Joseph throughout his reign – was the emergence of nationalistic tendencies throughout Europe.
During the 1848 to 1860 absolutism era in the Empire, Franz Joseph was well respected and was the glue that held the Empire together during tough times. Not everyone liked him, though. There was an attempt on his life during 1853, when Hungarian nationalist János Libényi stabbed him in the neck from behind. Fortunately, the Emperor was donning a high, sturdy collar that saved his life. This era was also one of disappointments in terms of foreign affairs, which brought absolutism to an end.
A constitution was passed in 1861. Reforms to modernize Austria were instigated, and industrialization arose. With a growth in industry during the 1860s, the bourgeoisie emerged, and they competed with the aristocracy. Problems persisted in foreign affairs. Austria lost the Second Italian War of Independence and then the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, a defeat that help trigger the Empire’s downfall.
This painful loss resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, in which the Emperor and Hungary formed a state of dualism, making the empire a single state for war and foreign affairs but leaving Hungary’s internal issues to Hungary. After the Dual Monarchy was established, the economy became more capitalist, and many railways were built. At this time Franz Joseph became the most revered member of the Habsburg dynasty because he had shown that he could compromise.
Yet many ethnic groups were not satisfied. Even though there was a majority of Slavs in the Empire, Germans had the upper hand. The German-Czech issue was a great problem during Franz Joseph’s reign. The disagreements concerning language were most fierce in Bohemia, where Czech was made the official language of the bureaucracy, and the Czechs greatly developed their own culture during the 1870s and 1880s. A Czech-speaking section of Prague’s Charles University was established, too. Germans voiced resentment, and demonstrations took place in Austria. But ethnic identity was not only an issue in Bohemia. In Hungary the Slovaks, Croats, Romanians and Serbs asserted themselves. Emperor Franz Joseph not only gave more autonomy to ethnic groups but was fluent in German, Hungarian and Czech. His skills in Polish and Italian were admirable as well.
Franz Joseph’s relationship with his heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was very tense. The Emperor did not approve when Franz Ferdinand wanted to marry Sophie Chotek, who was considered inferior because her family members were not descendants of any European ruling dynasty. Franz Joseph finally allowed the marriage in 1900. Yet he set down harsh conditions. The couple’s offspring could not be heirs to the throne. Sophie was forbidden to sit in the royal carriage or royal box. The Emperor and many other relatives did not attend the wedding.
When Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908, it brought about an unsettling reaction from the West, and many Serbs wanted a pan-Slav state directed by Serbia. There were many clashes between the Serbs and Austro-Hungary. The two Balkan Wars added more friction and greatly contributed to the downfall of the Habsburg Monarchy. This tension led to Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, where the Archduke was overseeing military maneuvers. Franz Joseph did not attend the funeral for the Archduke and his wife, who was also killed. World War I began less than two months after the assassinations. Following Franz Ferdinand’s tragic demise, Franz Joseph favored war.
Franz Joseph had been anxious to keep his Empire intact and to guard over his subjects. Yet he could not sacrifice any of the power he had inherited. He died in Schönbrunn Palace on November 21, 1916 at age 86. His grand-nephew Karl took the throne for two years before Austro-Hungary perished. Franz Joseph is known to have been a stolid but hard-working, serious ruler. He was awarded numerous medals and honors during his lifetime. Habsburg bureaucracy is generally considered to be strict but honest and very well-organized. For instance, one of the reasons why Lombardy, Veneto and Tuscany are three successful Italian regions is that Austrians ruled there for some time. An archipelago, glacier and university carry Franz Joseph’s name, too. His life and career was highlighted in the 1974 BBC miniseries, Fall of Eagles.
- related to: Franz Joseph I of Austria