Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Josef Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia, and monarch of other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 until his death.
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Nov 17, 2020 · Franz Joseph, also called Francis Joseph, (born August 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna, Austria—died November 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn), emperor of Austria (1848–1916) and king of Hungary (1867–1916), who divided his empire into the Dual Monarchy, in which Austria and Hungary coexisted as equal partners.
- Early Life
- Accession to The Throne
- Major Contributions
- Personal Life and Death
Franz Joseph I was born on August 18, 1830, in Vienna’s Schonbrunn Palace. He was the firstborn son of Franz Karl (the Archduke and son of Francis II) and Archduchess Sophie. His uncle, Emperor Ferdinand, was the reigning emperor at the time. Because the emperor was not so strong-minded, Franz Joseph’s mother decided to bring up his son as the future leader and emperor, with the main focus on diligence, devotion, and responsibility. When Franz turned 13 years, he joined the Austrian army as a colonel. From then until his death, he always wore the military uniform. In April 1848, he was appointed the Governor of Bohemia but never took up the post. Instead, he joined a military campaign in Italy.
While Franz was in Italy, his family flee the revolutionary Vienna to Innsbruck. In June 1848, he joined his family in Innsbruck where he first met Elisabeth, who later became his wife. Franz and the court traveled back to Vienna after Austria’s win over the Italian forces in July 1848. However, Vienna again became unsafe and the court left in September for Olomouc, Moravia. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne and Franz succeeded him as the new Emperor of Austria.
As a new emperor and with the help of Prime Minister Prince Schwarzenberg, Franz Joseph was able to grant a new constitution in 1849. He also led a military campaign against Hungarians who were rebelling against Habsburg's central authority. He was also faced with renewed fighting in Italy. With the help of the Russian troops, Franz crushed the revolution in Hungary and restored order throughout the Empire. Soon, Austria began a recovery of its position on the international scene. One of the main foreign policies of Franz was to unite Germany under the House of Habsburg. However, his desire to retain the non-German Austrian Empire proved problematic. Two factions immediately emerged; one supporting Greater Germany and the other supporting Lesser Germany. The contest between the two factions led to the Seven Weeks War which was won by the Prussians and Austria was excluded in the unification of Germany. Franz Joseph is also credit for starting World War I when Austro-Hungary declared...
Franz Joseph married Elisabeth of Bavaria in April 1854 in Vienna, with whom he fathered two children, Sophie and Rudolf. Although Franz loved his wife, Elisabeth did not feel the same. The Emperor met and fell in love with Katharina Schratt, a relationship that was tolerated by the wife. Franz Joseph died on November 16, 1916, in Schonbrunn Palace from pneumonia.
- John Misachi
Franz Joseph I was the longest-reigning emperor of Austria and the king of Hungary. He ruled over the kingdoms from 1848 to 1916, until his death. He was also the third-longest-reigning ruler in the history of Europe, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein.
Franz Joseph I (in German Franz Josef, in Hungarian Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916.
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Josef I., Hungarian: I. Ferenc Jxzsef, see the name in other languages; 18 August 1830 - 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia and Apostolic King of Hungary from 1848 until his death in 1916, King of Galicia and Lodomeria, Grand Duke of Cracow.
Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria(* 18.8.1830, O 24.4.1854, † 21.11.1916) O Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria, Empress consort of Austria(* 24.12.1837, O 24.4.1854, † 10.9.1898) Archduchess Sophie of Austria(* 5.3.1855, † 29.5.1857) Archduchess Gisela of Austria(* 12.7.1856, O 20.4.1873, † 27.7.1932)
Apr 21, 2016 · Franz Joseph was now Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Croatia and King of Bohemia. Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1851; Credit – Wikipedia The feeling in the Imperial Court was that the young emperor should marry and produce heirs as soon as possible.
- Personal Life
- Becoming Emperor
- The Era of Absolutism
- Reforms and Defeats
- The Austro-Hungarian Compromise
- The Upsurge of Nationalism
- Franz Joseph and Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Conflicts with Bosnia-Herzegovina and The Outbreak of World War I
- Death and Legacy
As a child Franz Joseph worshipped his grandfather, who died when he was almost five years old. He had three younger brothers – Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832), Archduke Karl Ludwig (born 1833) and Archduke Ludwig Viktor (born 1842). His sister, Maria Anna, passed away when she was only four. Franz Joseph’s childhood was brief – at age 13 he had already taken up the position of colonel in the Austrian army, for which he fought on the Front in Italy during May of 1848. Soon, though, he joined his family in Innsbruck, where they had taken refuge from the demonstrations and rebellions in Vienna. He first met his future wife, his cousin Elisabeth, in Innsbruck, when he was 10 years old, though he was not yet smitten by her.
When Elisabeth was 16, he fell in love with her and married her in Vienna on April 24, 1854. However, the marriage was fraught with tensions that were both personal and political; they were by no means the ideal couple. To make matters worse, their first daughter Sophie died at a young age, and their only son Rudolf killed himself. They had two other daughters, Gisela and Marie Valerie. His wife, nicknamed Sisi, was assassinated by an Italian anarchist in 1898, an event which emotionally crushed Franz Joseph. In 1885, though, Franz Joseph had taken actress Katharina Schratt as his mistress and felt justified in securing Schratt for himself due to his wife’s physical and emotional distance.
The family finally fled to Olomouc in Moravia during the troubled days of 1848. It was in Olomouc on December 2, 1848 that Franz Joseph became Emperor at the early age of 18. His uncle, Ferdinand I, had abdicated to try to put a halt to the revolutions in which people advocated democracy and participation in government and expressed their discontent with political leaders. Another significant factor – one that would affect Franz Joseph throughout his reign – was the emergence of nationalistic tendencies throughout Europe.
During the 1848 to 1860 absolutism era in the Empire, Franz Joseph was well respected and was the glue that held the Empire together during tough times. Not everyone liked him, though. There was an attempt on his life during 1853, when Hungarian nationalist János Libényi stabbed him in the neck from behind. Fortunately, the Emperor was donning a high, sturdy collar that saved his life. This era was also one of disappointments in terms of foreign affairs, which brought absolutism to an end.
A constitution was passed in 1861. Reforms to modernize Austria were instigated, and industrialization arose. With a growth in industry during the 1860s, the bourgeoisie emerged, and they competed with the aristocracy. Problems persisted in foreign affairs. Austria lost the Second Italian War of Independence and then the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, a defeat that help trigger the Empire’s downfall.
This painful loss resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, in which the Emperor and Hungary formed a state of dualism, making the empire a single state for war and foreign affairs but leaving Hungary’s internal issues to Hungary. After the Dual Monarchy was established, the economy became more capitalist, and many railways were built. At this time Franz Joseph became the most revered member of the Habsburg dynasty because he had shown that he could compromise.
Yet many ethnic groups were not satisfied. Even though there was a majority of Slavs in the Empire, Germans had the upper hand. The German-Czech issue was a great problem during Franz Joseph’s reign. The disagreements concerning language were most fierce in Bohemia, where Czech was made the official language of the bureaucracy, and the Czechs greatly developed their own culture during the 1870s and 1880s. A Czech-speaking section of Prague’s Charles University was established, too. Germans voiced resentment, and demonstrations took place in Austria. But ethnic identity was not only an issue in Bohemia. In Hungary the Slovaks, Croats, Romanians and Serbs asserted themselves. Emperor Franz Joseph not only gave more autonomy to ethnic groups but was fluent in German, Hungarian and Czech. His skills in Polish and Italian were admirable as well.
Franz Joseph’s relationship with his heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was very tense. The Emperor did not approve when Franz Ferdinand wanted to marry Sophie Chotek, who was considered inferior because her family members were not descendants of any European ruling dynasty. Franz Joseph finally allowed the marriage in 1900. Yet he set down harsh conditions. The couple’s offspring could not be heirs to the throne. Sophie was forbidden to sit in the royal carriage or royal box. The Emperor and many other relatives did not attend the wedding.
When Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908, it brought about an unsettling reaction from the West, and many Serbs wanted a pan-Slav state directed by Serbia. There were many clashes between the Serbs and Austro-Hungary. The two Balkan Wars added more friction and greatly contributed to the downfall of the Habsburg Monarchy. This tension led to Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, where the Archduke was overseeing military maneuvers. Franz Joseph did not attend the funeral for the Archduke and his wife, who was also killed. World War I began less than two months after the assassinations. Following Franz Ferdinand’s tragic demise, Franz Joseph favored war.
Franz Joseph had been anxious to keep his Empire intact and to guard over his subjects. Yet he could not sacrifice any of the power he had inherited. He died in Schönbrunn Palace on November 21, 1916 at age 86. His grand-nephew Karl took the throne for two years before Austro-Hungary perished. Franz Joseph is known to have been a stolid but hard-working, serious ruler. He was awarded numerous medals and honors during his lifetime. Habsburg bureaucracy is generally considered to be strict but honest and very well-organized. For instance, one of the reasons why Lombardy, Veneto and Tuscany are three successful Italian regions is that Austrians ruled there for some time. An archipelago, glacier and university carry Franz Joseph’s name, too. His life and career was highlighted in the 1974 BBC miniseries, Fall of Eagles.
Jun 01, 2020 · Emperor Franz Joseph in 1875 Anna Nowak was born on June 19, 1860, in Vienna Austria. When she was 14-years-old, Anna married silk manufacturer Johann Heuduck, a gambler, and an alcoholic. The couple had one child, Carola Heuduck (1877 – 1946).