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  1. Louis I, Duke of Bavaria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_I,_Duke_of_Bavaria

    4 days ago · Louis I (German: Ludwig; 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231), called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia

  2. Brief History of Europe/Early modern period - Wikibooks, open ...

    en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Brief_History_of_Europe/...
    • States and Territories of The Early Modern Period
    • Russia, Sweden, and Poland
    • Decline of The Holy Roman Empire
    • House of Hohenzollern
    • Houses of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine
    • House of Bourbon and France
    • Reformation and Religious Turmoil
    • Age of Discovery and Colonial Empires
    • Rise of Philosophy, The Arts, Science and Trade

    States and territories of the early modern period included: Northern Europe 1. The Kingdom of England (which included Wales from 1284) would later become the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800) by including the Kingdom of Scotland; the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1801) was a client state of the British. The end of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) led to two states: Denmark–Norway (1523–1533 & 1537–1814); and the Swedish Empire(1611–1721), which included Finland. Western and Central Europe 1. Included France; and the Holy Roman Empire, with lands of Brandenburg-Prussia and the lands of the Austrian Monarchy. The Habsburg Netherlands (1482–1794) would become the Seventeen Provinces (1549–1581), covering the Low Countries. The Seventeen Provinces gave rise to the Dutch Republic, an independent state from 1581–1795; and the Southern Netherlands (until 1794). The Old Swiss Confederacy(c. 1300 – 1798) gained de facto independence from the Holy Roman Empire after the Swabian War (1499), where it...

    Russian Tsardom and Empire

    Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) became a new name for Muscovy, also known as the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Ivan the Terrible(Ivan IV Vasilyevich) the grandson of Ivan III, was declared "Tsar of All Rus'" (1547–1584), after ruling as Grand Prince of Moscow (1533–1547). Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Sibirean khanates. Later on, the rest of Siberia would fall to the Russians, and by the mid-17th century Russia had expanded to the Pacific Ocean. The Rurik dynasty wer...

    Swedish Empire

    Swedish Empire (1611–1721) was a great power in Europe and a rival to Russia in Eastern Europe. The Swedish Empire was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (or Gustav II Adolf, who reigned 1611–1632); he led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, including great victories such as the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), before dying at the Battle of Lützen (1632). Gaining territories after the Thirty Years' War, they would be a military might during the Northern Wars, before lo...

    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

    The Kingdom of Poland created a bi-confederation with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to create the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth(1569–1795). During this period the King of Poland would also be the Grand Duke of Lithuania, although this personal union had existed since 1386. The "Golden Liberty" meant that the king was elected, and that the nobles held considerable power. The Poles were mostly West-Slavic, and the Lithuanians were mostly Balts. During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618), the P...

    In 1500 and 1512, the core of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles. These included Bavarian, Franconian, Upper and Lower Saxon, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Austrian, Burgundian, and Electoral Rhenish Circles. Territories within the Imperial Circles are sometimes considered to make up the Kingdom of Germany. Outside of the Imperial Circles were the lands of the Bohemian Crown (included Silesia), the Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798), as well as the Italian territories. Imperial Circles consisted of Imperial Estates, ruled by Imperial Princes. The Imperial Diet, the highest representative assembly, consisted of three colleges: an Electoral College of seven Prince-electors, who elected the emperor; a college of Imperial Princes; and a college of Free and Imperial Cities. Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope, Pope Clement VII in 1530. Since the 13th century the Holy Roman Emperor had began to lose power and territory...

    The House of Hohenzollern was a German dynasty from Hechingen in Swabia, who took their name from Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. Most importantly, the Brandenburg-Prussian branch would rule Brandenburg-Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the German Empire The first branch was the Swabian branch who ruled Zollern, a county in the Holy Roman Empire which from 1218 was called Hohenzollern, and whose capital became Hechingen. At first they ruled as Counts of Zollern (1061–1204) and Hohenzollern (1204–1575). They would then rule Hohenzollern-Haigerloch, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen during the period of 1576 to 1849. After 1849 to the present day they continued as Heads of the Princely House of Hohenzollern. Other than the Swabian branch, other ruling branches were: 1. Brandenburg-Prussian branch, which included the Electors and Margraves of Brandenburg, 1415 to 1806. They also included the rulers of Prussia (1525–1918), and the German Emperors (1871–191...

    The House of Habsburg (or House of Austria) was one of the most important dynastic royal houses in the history of Europe. Named after Habsburg Castle (in present-day Switzerland), they were powerful monarchs of many dominions across Europe during the Middle Ages and modern period. It was succeeded by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine(a branch of the House of Lorraine) with the extinction of the male line but the continuation of the female line. The key monarchies for the Houses of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine were the following: 1. Monarchs of Austriabetween 1282 and 1918, as dukes, archdukes or emperors, or female equivalents. The Austrian branch gained many dominions both inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire. 2. Monarchs of Spain(Castile and Aragon) between 1516 and 1700. The Spanish branch was mostly separate from the Austrian branch, and would have a significant presence in the New World, the Netherlands (then covering the Low Countries), and Italy and its surrounding isla...

    The House of Bourbon was a branch of the Capetian dynasty; it succeeded the House of Capet (987–1328) and Valois kings(1328–1589) as French monarchs. Branches would also become Spanish monarchs (see below), and Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (1964–present), as well as holding many other titles. Henry IV, the Great (1589–1610) was the first Bourbon monarch, who ascended during the turmoil surrounding the French Wars of Religion. He was succeeded by Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI. Louis XVI was deposed in 1792 by the Great French Revolution (1789–1799). The Bourbons were later restored 1815–1830, with Louis XVIII and Charles X; and Louis-Philippe I (of the House of Orléans cadet branch) ruled 1830–1848. Cardinal Richelieu, King Louis XIII's chief minister between 1624–1642, helped transform France into a modern state. Louis XIV (the Great or the Sun King) ruled France between 1643–1715. An absolute monarch, he greatly expanded the Palace of Versailles, and revoked the Edict...

    Protestant Reformation and earlier movements

    The Protestant Reformation was the establishment of Protestantism by in a 16th-century western Europe, whose religion was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation began in 1517, at Wittenberg, Saxony, when Martin Luther sent his Ninety-Five Thesesto the Archbishop of Mainz; these protested against the sale of plenary indulgences by the clergy. This was not the first time that the Catholic religion had been challenged. For example, in the High Middle Ages the Catharso...

    English Reformation and religious tensions

    English Reformation: took place during the 16th century, when Henry VIII established the Anglican faith, followed by the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Gunpowder Plot (1605) was an attempted assassination of the Protestant King James I of England by Catholics. The English Civil Wars(1642–1646, 1648–1649, 1649–1651) were partly religious in origin, and were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (of England, Ireland and Scotland) between 1639–1651. Anti-Catholic hysteria resulted in the P...

    Counter-Reformation

    Counter-Reformation: was a period of Catholic resurgence in response to the Reformation. It began with the 25 sessions of the Council of Trent (1545–1563), which led to reform of Church doctrines and teachings, the foundation of seminaries for the training of priests, and new religious orders such as the Jesuits. The Inquisitionwas used to enforce the Counter-Reformation and suppress heresy; it included the Spanish Inquisition, the Roman Inquisition, and Portuguese Inquisition.

    Age of Discovery: from circa 1400 to 1800. Lands include the Americas (the New World); southern Africa; Congo River; West Indies; India; Maluku Islands (Spice Islands); Australasia; New Zealand; Antarctica; Hawaii. Largely coincided with the Age of Sail(1571–1862). Spanish Empire (1492–1975): Christopher Columbus landed in the New World in 1492. This was followed by La Conquista, the Spanish colonization of the Americas by the conquistadores. Cortes conquered the Aztecs after the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21). In 1532 Pizarro conquered the Inca empire in Peru. The Maya and many other peoples were also conquered. Spanish lands in the Americas would be mainly divided into Viceroyalties: New Granada, New Spain, Peru, and Río de la Plata; and also Spanish Louisiana, and many other islands and territories. Portuguese Empire (1415–1999): Vasco da Gama, during his voyage to India (1497–1499), performed the first navigation around South Africa, to connect the Atlantic and the Indian oceans. T...

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance began in Italy 14th century, and continued into the 17th century. It literally meant "rebirth", as it was seen as a rebirth of Classical learning and culture. There were developments in philosophy (particularly humanism), science, technology, and warfare. There were also artistic developments, including architecture, dance, fine arts, literature and music. There was renewed interest in Classical Roman and Greek texts, but also translations of Arabic texts. Early writers includ...

    Baroque Period and Age of Enlightenment

    Baroque Period (17th and 18th centuries) was characterised by highly ornate styles in architecture, music, painting, and sculpture. Artists included Velázquez, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Poussin, and Vermeer. Baroque composers included Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, and Henry Purcell. It was followed by the Classical period of music; roughly between 1730 and 1820, it included Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven,...

    Capitalism and mercantilism

    Rise of capitalism: capitalism became a dominant force in the sixteenth century, with the abolition of feudalism. It took its name from capital, defined by Adam Smith as "that part of man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The investment of capital became the primary factor in the accumulation of wealth. Mercantilism, the exporting goods from countries, also rose in importance, particularly as a result of colonialism, with the trade of slaves and goods across the Atlantic Ocean...

  3. Memorial of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, religious - November 17 ...

    www.catholicculture.org/culture/liturgicalyear...

    Nov 17, 2020 · Today the Church celebrates the memorial of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, religious. She was the daughter of Andrew II, King of Hungary, and wife of Duke Louis IV of Thuringia. She is famous for her ...

  4. List of German monarchs - The Royal Forums

    www.theroyalforums.com/forums/f78/list-of-german...

    3 days ago · Frederick I Barbarossa 4 March 1152(King) 18 June 1155(Emperor) 10 June 1190 ... also King of Bohemia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. ... Grand Duke of Frankfurt

  5. Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria - Wikipedia

    www.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:Archduke_Peter...

    Nov 17, 2020 · Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia [citation needed] (Peter Ferdinand Salvator Karl Ludwig Maria Joseph Leopold Anton Rupert Pius Pancraz; 12 May 1874, Salzburg, Austria-Hungary [citation needed] – 8 November 1948, St. Gilgen, Salzburg, Austria [citation needed]) was an Austro-Hungarian archduke and an army commander in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World ...

  6. List of Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign endorsements ...

    wikimili.com/en/List_of_Donald_Trump_2020...

    4 days ago · List of Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign endorsements - WikiM This is a list of notable individuals and organizations who voiced their endorsement for the office of the president of Donald Trump as the Republican Party's presidential candidate for the 2020 United States presidential election.

  7. Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily - Wikipedia

    www.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:Maria_Teresa_of_Naples...

    Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807) was the last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria by marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) (1751–1825) and Marie Caroline of Austria (1752–1814).

  8. Local Sources - Brigham Young University

    eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/German_Local_and...

    5 days ago · Local Sources Ansbach. Staatliche Bibliothek Ansbach; Library collecting everything from and about the region of Middle Franconia, giving special attention to the Brandenburg-Ansbach aristocratic history, the city history of Ansbach and the subject of Kaspar Hauser.

  9. University of Southampton Special Collections

    specialcollectionsuniversityofsouthampton.wordpress.com

    Nov 17, 2020 · The Duke was always keen to have visitors at Walmer and entertained on a grand scale. Snippets from various letters give us hints about the sort of events he hosted. List in the hand of Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of Wellington, of the people he has invited to dine with him that day at Walmer Castle, 5 November 1840 [MS 61 MS 69/2/103]

  10. Bibliography - Oxford Handbooks

    www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/...

    5 days ago · Manuscript of Donne's poems, probably copied for Sir William Cavendish, 1 st Duke of Newcastle, c.1630. MS Kings 123. Transcripts of French state papers. MS Royal 17.B.XX. John Donne's Sermon on Lamentations iv. 20. MS Royal 17.B.L. Letter from Egerton to Essex. MS Stowe 173. Papers of Sir Thomas Edmondes. MS Stowe 175. Papers of Sir Thomas ...

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