3 days ago · The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany, also referred to as Imperial Germany or Second Reich, as well as simply Germany, was the period of the German Reich from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918, when the German Reich changed its form of government from a monarchy to a republic.
5 days ago · The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck.
- 2,658,161 km² (1,026,322 sq mi)
- German, Local:, Swahili, Arabic (East African colonies), Oshiwambo, Afrikaans (South West Africa), Bantu (Togoland and Cameroon), Tsingtao Chinese and Mandarin Chinese (Tianjin and Kiautschou Bay), Papuan languages (German New Guinea), Samoan (German Samoa)
- Continuity and status
- State power, territory and people
The German Empire was a short-lived proto-state which existed from 1848 to 1849.
The state was created by the Frankfurt Parliament in spring 1848, following the March Revolution. The empire officially ended when the German Confederation was fully reconstituted in the Summer of 1851, but came to a de facto end in December 1849 when the Central German Government was replaced with a Federal Central Commission. The Empire struggled to be recognized by both German and foreign states. The German states, represented by the Federal Convention of the German Confederation, on 12 July
Contemporaries and scholars had different opinions about the statehood of the German Empire of 1848/1849: 1. One group followed a positivist point of view: law was statutory law. A constitution for Germany had to be agreed upon with the governments of all German states. This was the opinion of the monarchists and the German states. 2. The other group valued natural law and the principle of the sovereignty of the people higher; the National Assembly alone had the power to establish a constitution
The Frankfurt Assembly saw itself as the German national legislature, as made explicit in the Imperial Law concerning the declaration of the imperial laws and the decrees of the provisional Central Power, from 27 September 1848. It issued laws earlier, such as the law of 14 June that created the Imperial Fleet. Maybe the most notable law declared the highly acclaimed Basic Rights of the German People, 27 December 1848. The Central Power or Central Government consisted of the Imperial Regent, Arc
1 day ago · German Reich (German: Deutsches Reich, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃəs ˈʁaɪç]) was the constitutional name for the German nation state that existed from 1871 to 1945. The Reich became understood as deriving its authority and sovereignty entirely from a continuing unitary German "national people", with that authority and sovereignty being exercised at any one time over a unitary German "state ...
In the modern period, the Empire was often informally called the German Empire (Deutsches Reich) or Roman-German Empire (Römisch-Deutsches Reich). After its dissolution through the end of the German Empire, it was often called "the old Empire" (das alte Reich).
- Signatories and members
- The Emperor
- The Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellor)
The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871. German historians often refer to it as Bismarck's imperial constitution, in German the Bismarcksche Reichsverfassung. According to the constitution, the empire was a federation of 25 German states under the permanent presidency of Prussia, the largest and most powerful state. The presidency of the confederation was a hereditary office of the King of Pru
The constitution was signed by William I, the King of Prussia, acting in his capacity as Bundespräsidium of the North German Confederation, the Kings of Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg, and the Grand Dukes of Baden and Hesse. Hesse north of the river Main was already a member of the North German Confederation; its territory south of the river was now included as well. The member states of the North German Confederation that now became members of the Empire were Prussia, Mecklenburg ...
The empire was officially defined as a federation of the member states under the permanent presidency of Prussia. The presidency of the Confederation was a hereditary office of the King of Prussia. From 1 January 1871 onward, he was granted the additional title of German Emperor. Thus, the imperial crown was tied to the office of the King of Prussia. Wilhelm II discovered this at the end of World War I. He believed that he ruled the Empire in personal union with Prussia, and could merely abdicat
The Emperor exercised his powers with the assistance of the Chancellor of the Empire. The Chancellor was appointed by the Emperor, to whom he was solely responsible. He presided over the Bundesrat and supervised the conduct of its business. The Chancellor had the right to delegate the power to represent him to any member of the Bundesrat. Decrees and ordinances of the Emperor required the counter-signature of the Chancellor to be valid. On paper, the Chancellor was a one-man cabinet. In practice
Imperial laws were enacted, via simple majority, by both the Reichstag and the Bundesrat. These laws took precedence over the laws of the individual states. Article 13 required the annual convocation of both bodies. The Bundesrat could be called together for the preparation of business without the Reichstag, but not the converse.
A single German citizenship was created, with equal treatment of citizens within each state guaranteed. However, until 1913, a person would hold the citizenship of the Empire as a result of holding the citizenship of one of the States. Therefore, initially, the criteria for becoming a citizen, were laid down by the separate laws of the individual States. Only on 22 July 1913 was a common uniform Nationality Law for the Empire – the Nationality Law of the German Empire and States – adopted.
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3 days ago · In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic.
2 days ago · From Germānī + -ia. Germani was an exonym applied by the Romans to a tribe (or nearby tribes) living around and east of the Rhine; it was first attested in the 1st century b.c. works of Julius Caesar and is of uncertain etymology.
5 days ago · The German Empire became the Weimar Republic. A big problem for Germany was to pay back a giant amount of money for the all of the damage done to the Allied countries, mostly France, during World War I. That made Germany one of the poorest countries in Europe for almost 20 years and caused political fighting in Germany.