2 days ago · Czechoslovakia was founded in October 1918, as one of the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I and as part of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It consisted of the present day territories of Bohemia , Moravia , Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia .
5 days ago · Total number of emigrants before the Velvet Revolution reached 300,000. The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by four Warsaw Pact countries (the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary) on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
- 20–21 August 1968
- Warsaw Pact victory, Defeat of Czechoslovakia and Allies, Effort to suppress the reform process in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Moscow Protocol, The resignation of Alexander Dubček as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), The election of Gustáv Husák as the First Secretary of the KSČ and beginning of the Normalization era, Soviet military presence in Czechoslovakia until 1991, Withdrawal of Albania from the Warsaw Pact in September 1968
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5 days ago · Leonid Brezhnev was born to a Russian working-class family in Kamenskoye (now Kamianske, Ukraine) within the Yekaterinoslav Governorate of the Russian Empire. After the results of the October Revolution were finalized with the creation of the Soviet Union, Brezhnev joined the Communist party's youth league in 1923 before becoming an official ...
Sep 18, 2021 · Mark N. Katz is a professor of government and politics at the George Mason University Schar School of Policy and Government, and a nonresident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council. Image : Wikipedia.
5 days ago · Polish–Soviet. 1939. The Soviet invasion of Poland was a military operation by the Soviet Union without a formal declaration of war. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Germany invaded Poland from the west.
- Pre-Arbitration Negotiations
- Postwar Persecutions
- See Also
From 1933, Hungarian foreign policy closely collaborated with Nazi Germany in the hope of revising the borders that had been established by the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. In March 1933, the Hungarian prime minister declared that Hungary "requests justice in the historical principle" and wanted the redeem of Hungarian-inhabited territories that had been lost after World War I. In June 1933, Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös visited Germany and, together with Adolf Hitler, concluded that Czech...
Border conflicts and sabotage
The Munich Agreement defined a three-month period to resolve Hungarian demands, and the Hungarian government pushed to start negotiations immediately. The pressure was increased on the Hungarian side by border conflicts and by diversion actions in Czechoslovakia. The first conflict occurred in the early morning of October 5, 1938, when troops of the Royal Hungarian Army crossed the border and attacked Czechoslovak positions near Jesenské with the goal of capturing Rimavská Sobota. Hungarian t...
Internal situation in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia had an interest in stabilizing the situation because the foreign ministry had to resolve problems with Poland and Germany and did not want to start negotiations before October 15. The Czechoslovak minister of foreign affairs was focused on building new relationships with Germany and Italy to negotiate guarantees for new borders. After the Munich Agreement, all political subjects in Slovakia concluded that it is necessary to change the position of Slovakia within the state and d...
Negotiations in Komárno
Negotiations were held between October 9 and October 13, 1938 in Komárno, on the Slovak northern bank of the Danube River, just on the border with Hungary. The Czechoslovak delegation was led by Jozef Tiso, the prime minister of the autonomous government, without any experience with similar negotiations, and it included Ferdinand Ďurčanský, Minister of Justice in the Slovak cabinet, and General Rudolf Viest. The central government of Czechoslovakia was represented by Ivan Krno, Political Dire...
On October 13, the day the negotiations deadlocked, Hungary conducted a partial mobilisation. Czechoslovakia performed actions to strengthen its security and declared martial law in the frontier region. After the failure of bilateral negotiations, the dispute about borders escalated to a wider international level. The Axis powerstook the initiative in favour of Hungary to realise their own plans in the region. Hungary sent delegations to both Italy and Germany. Count Csáky went to Rome. Kálmá...
Final failure of bilateral negotiations
Negotiations between Czechoslovakia and Hungary resumed via diplomatic channels. Czechoslovakia adopted the "Ribbentrop line" in the hope that it would receive a guarantee of new borders from the side of Axis powers and proposed it officially on October 22. Czechoslovakia offered to cede Hungary territory with 494,646 Hungarians and 168,632 Slovaks. Czechoslovakia would retain Bratislava, Nitra and Košice. Hungary turned down the proposal, causing Germany to withdraw its position as mediator....
The award was made in Vienna by the foreign ministers of Germany (Joachim von Ribbentrop) and Italy (Galeazzo Ciano). The Hungarian delegation was led by Foreign Minister Kálmán Kánya, accompanied by Minister of Education Pál Teleki. The Czechoslovak delegation was led by Foreign Minister František Chvalkovský and Ivan Krno. Important members of the Czechoslovak delegation included representatives of Subcarpathian Rus' (Prime Minister Avgustyn Voloshyn) and of Slovakia (Prime Minister Jozef T...
Czechoslovakia had to surrender the territories in southern Slovakia and southern Carpathian Ruthenia south of the line (and including the towns of) Senec (Szenc), Galanta (Galánta), Vráble (Verebély), Levice (Léva), Lučenec (Losonc), Rimavská Sobota (Rimaszombat), Jelšava (Jolsva), Rožnava (Rozsnyó), Košice (Kassa), Michaľany (Szentmihályfalva), Veľké Kapušany (Nagykapos), Uzhhorod (Ungvár), and Mukachevo (Munkács) – to the border with Romania. Slovakia lost 10,390 km2 with 854,277 inhabitan...
The First Vienna Award led to worsening anti-Hungarian sentiments in Slovakia. Shortly after the award had been announced, János Esterházy, a leader of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia, proposed for Hungary to return to Slovakia 1000 km2 of the territory that Hungary had received, predominantly Slovak lands between Šurany (Nagysurány) and Palárikovo (Tótmegyer), to ensure long-term peaceful co-existence between the two nations. His proposal was not accepted by the Hungarian government.The o...
Radicalisation of Central Europe
Hungary annulled Point 4 of Article 27 of the Treaty of Trianon, which committed it to respect the new borders that were defined by the treaty. According to Deák, Hungary also violated Articles 48 and 49 of the treaty, which guaranteed independence and rights of new Czechoslovak state.,and in addition to territorial gains based on the First Vienna Award, Hungary ignored the results of the arbitration and tried to annex Carpathian Ruthenia few weeks later. From the Middle Ages to well into the...
In terms of international law, the Vienna Award was later ruled to be null and void. Although it was presented as a voluntary act of two sovereign states in arbitration, the Czechoslovak government had accepted arbitration under a presumed threat from both arbiters (Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy) and under heavy influence of Hungarian demands. According to Deák, under international law, the act is considered to have been illegal, and its result could not be accepted as valid. Just as the Munich Agreement was later nullified, as Czechoslovakia's interests were largely ignored, and the arbiters had used their military prowess to pressure those in the agreement, the Vienna Award was also found to be illegal at the end of World War II. From that legal standpoint, the Vienna Award never existed as a valid legal act. On December 11, 1940, the British ministry of foreign affairs confirmed to the Czechoslovak government that Britain was not bound to Munich Agreement regarding Czechoslovak...
The Munich Agreement, the First Vienna Award and participation of minority parties in the breakup of Czechoslovakia resulted in the redefinition of Czechoslovak minority policy after the war. While interwar Czechoslovakia had guaranteed a relatively large number of minority rights, and the civic and social rights of Hungarians were higher than in Hungary, they became the target of serious discrimination in the postwar period. The Hungarian question had to be resolved by population exchange between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, Slovakization and deportations of Hungarians in Czechoslovakia (particularly to the Sudetenland). The Government Program of Košice (April 5, 1945) accepted the principle of collective guilt for German and Hungarian minorities. Articles X and XI ordered the seizure of their property and Article XV the closure of minority schools. Measures against minorities were reasoned by "terrible experience of Czechs and Slovaks with German and Hungarian minorities, which lar...Piahanau, Aliaksandr. Slovak-Hungarian relations in the mirror of the Soviet-German conflictive alliance (1939-1941), in: Prague Papers on the History of International Relations 2 (2012): 144 – 163...Bystrický, Valerián (2008). "Vnútropolitický ohlas na zmeny hraníc v roku 1938". In Šmihula, Daniel (ed.). Viedenská arbitráž v roku 1938 a jej európske súvislosti [Vienna Award in 1938 and its Eur...Chorvát, Peter (2008). "Maďarské kráľovské hovédskto vs. československé opevnenia – k problémom interacie" [Royal Hungarian Army vs. Czechoslovak fortifications – about interaction problems]. Vojen...Deák, Ladislav (1991). Hra o Slovensko [The Game for Slovakia] (in Slovak). Bratislava: Slovak Academy of Sciences. ISBN 80-224-0370-9.