Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, Russia, on 18 December 1709 ().Her parents were Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia and Catherine. Catherine was the daughter of Samuel Skowroński, a subject of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- Family and Early Life
- King of The Hellenes
- Early Reign
- Marriage and Children
- National Progress
- Later Reign and Assassination
George was born at the Yellow Palace, an 18th-century town house at 18 Amaliegade, right next to the Amalienborg Palace complex in Copenhagen. He was the second son of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Although his full name was Prince Christian Vilhelm Ferdinand Adolf Georg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, until his accession in Greece, he was known as Prince Vilhelm (William), the namesake of his paternal and maternal grandfathers, William, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and Prince William of Hesse-Kassel. Although he was of royal blood, his family was relatively obscure and lived a comparatively normal life by royal standards. In 1852, however, George's father was designated the heir presumptive to the childless King Frederick VII of Denmark, and the family became princes and princesses of Denmark. George's siblings were Frederick (who succeeded their father as King of Denmark), Alexandra (who b...
Following the overthrow of the Bavarian-born King Otto of Greece in October 1862, the Greek people had rejected Otto's brother and designated successor Leopold, although they still favored a monarchy rather than a republic. Many Greeks, seeking closer ties to the pre-eminent world power, Great Britain, rallied around Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. British Foreign Minister Lord Palmerston believed that the Greeks were "panting for increase in territory", hoping for a gift of the Ionian Islands, which were then a British protectorate. The London Conference of 1832, however, prohibited any of the Great Powers' ruling families from accepting the crown, and in any event, Queen Victoria was adamantly opposed to the idea. The Greeks nevertheless insisted on holding a plebiscite in which Prince Alfred received over 95% of the 240,000 votes. There were 93 votes for a Republic and 6 for a Greek. King Otto received one vote. With Prince Alfred...
The new 17-year-old king toured Saint Petersburg, London and Paris before departing for Greece from the French port of Toulon on 22 October aboard the Greek flagship Hellas. He arrived in Athens on 30 October [O.S. 18 October] 1863, after docking at Piraeus the previous day. He was determined not to make the mistakes of his predecessor, so he quickly learned Greek. The new king was seen frequently and informally in the streets of Athens, where his predecessor had only appeared in pomp. King George found the palace in a state of disarray, after the hasty departure of King Otto, and took to putting it right by mending and updating the 40-year-old building. He also sought to ensure that he was not seen as too influenced by his Danish advisers, ultimately sending his uncle, Prince Julius, back to Denmark with the words, "I will not allow any interference with the conduct of my government". Another adviser, Count Wilhelm Sponneck, became unpopular for advocating a policy of disarmament a...
George first met Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia in 1863, when she was 12 years old, on a visit to the court of Tsar Alexander II between his election to the Greek throne and his arrival in Athens. They met for a second time in April 1867, when George went to the Russian Empire to visit his sister Dagmar, who had married into the Russian imperial family. While George was a Lutheran, the Romanovs were Orthodox Christians like the majority of Greeks, and George thought a marriage with a Russian grand duchess would re-assure his subjects on the question of his future children's religion. Olga was just 16 years old when she married George in Saint Petersburg on 27 October 1867. After a honeymoon at Tsarskoye Selo, the couple left Russia for Greece on 9 November. Over the next twenty years, they had eight children: 1. Constantine (1868–1923), who married Princess Sophia of Prussia; 2. George (1869–1957), who married Princess Marie Bonaparte; 3. Alexandra (1870–1891), who marr...
George's silver jubilee in 1888 was celebrated throughout the Hellenic world, and Athens was decorated with garlands for the anniversary of his accession on 30 October. Visitors included the Crown Prince of Denmark, the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, Grand Dukes Sergei and Paul of Russia, and Djevad Pasha from the Ottoman Empire, who presented the King with two Arabian horses as gifts. Jubilee events in the week of 30 October included balls, galas, parades, a thanksgiving service at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, and a lunch for 500 invited guests in a blue and white tent on the Acropolis. Greece in the last decades of the 19th century was increasingly prosperous and was developing a sense of its role on the European stage. In 1893, the Corinth Canal was built by a French company cutting the sea journey from the Adriatic Sea to Piraeus by 150 miles (241 km). In 1896, the Olympic Games were revived in Athens, and the Opening Ceremony of the 18...
The death of Britain's Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901 left King George as the second-longest-reigning monarch in Europe. His always cordial relations with his brother-in-law, the new King Edward VII, continued to tie Greece to Britain. This was abundantly important in Britain's support of King George's son Prince George as Governor-General of Crete. Nevertheless, Prince George resigned in 1906 after a leader in the Cretan Assembly, Eleftherios Venizelos, campaigned to have him removed. As a response to the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, Venizelos's power base was further strengthened, and on 8 October 1908 the Cretan Assembly passed a resolution in favor of union despite both the reservations of the Athens government under Georgios Theotokis and the objections of the Great Powers. The muted reaction of the Athens Government to the news from Crete led to an unsettled state of affairs on the mainland. A group of military officers formed a military league, Stratiotikos Syndesmos, th...1845–1852: His HighnessPrince William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg1852–1858: His HighnessPrince William of Denmark1858–1863: His Royal HighnessPrince William of Denmark1863–1913: His MajestyThe King of the Hellenes
Sep 07, 2021 · March 16, 1861 – Death of Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent, mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Frogmore House in Windsor, England; buried at the Duchess of Kent’s Mausoleum at Frogmore, Windsor Her mother’s death was the first of the two major deaths Queen Victoria had to endure in 1861.
Aug 29, 2021 · Princess Elisabeth of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Πριγκίπισσα Ελισάβετ της Ελλάδας και Δανίας) (24 May 1904 – 11 January 1955) was the middle daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. Biography Early life Elizabeth was born on 24 May 1904 at Tatoi, Greece.
Sep 10, 2021 · Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714.
- First Marriage
- Second Marriage
- World War I
- Revolution and Death
On 17 June 1889, in St. Petersburg, he married his paternal first cousin once removed Princess Alexandra of Greece, who bore him two children: 1. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1890–1958) 2. Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia (1891–1942) Alexandra's mother Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia was a patrilineal-line granddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I and Princess Charlotte of Prussia, and therefore Paul Alexandrovich's paternal first cousin. Alexandra died just six days after Dmitri's birth. She had carelessly stepped into a waiting boat, causing premature labour; Dmitri was born in the hours following the accident. Alexandra slipped into a coma and did not regain consciousness.
In 1893, the young widower became close to a commoner, Olga Valerianovna Karnovich, and years later requested Nicholas II's permission to marry her, but it was refused, and the couple settled in Paris. On 10 October 1902 they were married in an Orthodox church in Livorno, Italy. The Bavarian government granted Olga the title of Countess of Hohenfelsen in 1904, but the marriage caused a scandal in the Russian Court. Paul was dismissed of his military commissions, all his properties were seized, and his brother Grand Duke Sergei was appointed guardian of Maria and Dmitri. For many years, he lived in exile in France with Olga and the three children they had: Vladimir, who became a remarkable poet, and two girls, Irina and Natalia. Eventually he was pardoned and settled with his family in Tsarskoe Selo. In 1915 the Tsar granted Olga and their children the title of Prince and Princesses Paley with the style of Serene Highness, and their children also became Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Pale...
During World War I he was placed in command of the First Corps of the Imperial Guard and later was moved to a new appointment at the Tsar's headquarters. In November 1916 he tried to convince the sovereign to grant a Constitution, but his efforts failed. However, he was one of the few members of the Imperial Family who remained quite close to Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna during the final days of the old régime.
After the Bolsheviks seized power, he and his family faced a terrible ordeal. Their properties were confiscated, they lived under constant harassment, and in March 1918 his son Vladimir Paley was exiled to the Urals, where he was executed on 18 July 1918 in a mineshaft near Alapayevsk. In August 1918, he was arrested and taken to prison in St. Petersburg. His health, already bad, declined sharply, and his wife did all she could to have him released. Her efforts were useless: on 29 January 1919, Paul was moved to St. Peter and St. Paul Fortress, and in the first hours of the following day he was shot there, along with his cousins Grand Dukes Dimitry Konstantinovich, Nikolay Mikhailovich and Georgy Mikhailovich. They were buried in a mass grave in the Fortress, the Bolsheviks having refused the distraught Princess Paley the right to bury her husband. His body and those of his three cousins were found in 2011. ***
- Early Life
- Marriage and Children
- Later Life and Death
- Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
Princess Marina was born in Athens, Greece, on 13 December 1906. Her father was Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, the third son of George I of Greece. Her mother was Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, a granddaughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. She was the youngest of the couple's children. One of her paternal uncles was Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, the father of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She was baptised near the end of 1906, and her godparents were: the King of Greece (her paternal grandfather); the King of the United Kingdom (her great-uncle by marriage); the Princess of Wales; Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (her paternal uncle); Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia (her maternal uncle); and Grand Duchess Victoria Fyodorovna of Russia (her maternal aunt). The family was generally poor and forced into exile when she was 11, following the overthrow of the Greek monarchy. They later moved to Paris, while the Princess stayed throughout Europ...
In 1932 Princess Marina and Prince George, Duke of Kent, a second cousin through Christian IX of Denmark, met in London. Their betrothal was announced in August 1934. On 29 November 1934, they married at Westminster Abbey, London. The wedding was followed by a Greek ceremony in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace. The bride's gown was in white and silver silk brocade, designed by Edward Molyneux, and worked on by a team of seamstresses including, at Marina's request, Russian émigreés. Her eight bridesmaids were her first cousins, Greek princesses Irene, Eugenie and Katherine, her maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, her husband's niece Princess Elizabeth of York, her husband's cousins the Lady Iris Mountbatten and Lady Mary Cambridge. The Royal School of Needlework made a quilt as a wedding gift for Princess Marina and the Duke of Kent. Following the marriage she became the Duchess of Kent. The couple had three child...
After her husband's death, the Duchess of Kent continued to be an active member of the British Royal Family, carrying out a wide range of royal and official engagements. She was the president of the Wimbledon All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club for 26 years. She was President of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution from 1943 until her death and was awarded the RNLI's Gold Medal in 1967 to mark this contribution. Her first cousin Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, married her niece, the future Queen Elizabeth II. In June 1952 the Duchess laid the foundation stone of the new St Mark's Church in Bromley, London, which had been damaged in the war. In 1952, the Duchess also visited Sarawak (then a British Crown Colony), where she laid the foundation stone of the Cathedral of St. Thomas in Kuching. She also visited the Batu Lintang camp, a Japanese internment camp during World War II which had been converted to a teacher training college, and the town of Sibu, where she opened the...
The Kinks recorded "She's Bought a Hat Like Princess Marina" for their 1969 album Arthur (or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire). The song was written by Ray Davies. Princess Marina gave her name to many facilities, including: 1. Princess Marina College, Arborfield, Berkshire 2. Princess Marina House, a facility of the Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund at Rustington. 3. Princess Marina Hospital, Upton, Northamptonshire 4. Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana 5. Princess Marina Sports Complex, Rickmansworth. 6. Duchess of Kent Hospital, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia 7. Kent College (a teacher training college) Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia She is portrayed by Rita McDonald Damper in the Netflix television series The Crown.13 December 1906 – 29 November 1934: Her Royal HighnessPrincess Marina of Greece and Denmark29 November 1934 – 8 June 1961: Her Royal HighnessThe Duchess of Kent8 June 1961 – 27 August 1968: Her Royal HighnessPrincess Marina, Duchess of Kent
British and Commonwealth honours 1. CI:Companion of the Order of the Imperial Crown of India 2. GCVO:Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order 3. GBE:Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire 4. GCStJ:Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem 5. Royal Family Order of King George V 6. Royal Family Order of King George VI 7. Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II 8. Canadian Forces Decoration Foreign honours 1. Order of Saints Olga and Sophia, 1st Class 2. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Beneficence 3. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle 4. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru 5. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit 6. Dame Grand Cross of the National Order of the Southern Cross 7. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator San Martin 8. Grand Decoration in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria 1. Colonel-in-Chief, of The Kent Regiment 2. Colonel-in-Chief, of The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment 3. Colon...