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  1. Szczerbiec - Wikipedia

    Szczerbiec is a 98 cm-long (39 in) ceremonial sword bearing rich Gothic ornamentation, dated to the mid-13th century.: 69–70;: 137–139 It is classified as a type XII sword with a type I pommel and a type 6 crossguard according to the Oakeshott typology,: 126 although the blade may have changed its shape due to centuries of corrosion and intensive cleaning before every coronation.

    • 13th century as a sword of justice, 1320–1764 as a coronation sword
    • Poland or Germany (possibly Rhineland)
  2. Jadwiga of Poland - Wikipedia

    Sep 04, 2020 · Jadwiga (Polish: [jadˈvʲiɡa] ), also known as Hedwig (Hungarian: Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.

    • 16 October 1384 – 17 July 1399
    • Louis
  3. Edvige Iagellona - Wikipedia

    Edvige Iagellona, in polacco Jadwiga Jagiellonka, in tedesco Hedwig Jagiellonica (Poznań, 15 marzo 1513 – Neuruppin, 7 febbraio 1573), era figlia del re Sigismondo I di Polonia e della sua prima moglie Barbara Zápolya, e fu principessa elettrice di Brandeburgo dal 1535 alla morte.

  4. Lista de monarcas da Alemanha – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livreânia

    filho de Alberto IV, Conde de Habsburgo e Hedwig de Kyburg: 15 de julho de 1291 73 anos: Rei rivalizando com Afonso de Castela de 1272 a 1275. Dinastia Nassau ...

  5. Avusturya hükümdarları listesi - Vikipediükümdarları...

    Avusturya, 1246'ya kadar Babenberg Hanedanı ve 1282'den 1918'e kadar Habsburg Hanedanı tarafından yönetildi. Bu listede Avusturya'nın lord, kral ve arşidüklerinin listesi yer almaktadır.

  6. Casimiro I di Cuiavia - Wikipedia

    Sep 04, 2020 · Casimiro I di Cuiavia (1211 – 14 dicembre 1267) fu duca di Cuiavia dal 1233, Signore di Ląd dal 1239 al 1261, Signore di Wyszogród dal 1242, duca di Sieradz dal 1247 al 1261, di Łęczyca dal 1247 e di Dobrzyń nad Wisłą dall'anno seguente.

  7. John III Sobieski Facts for Kids
    • Royal Titles
    • Biography
    • Legacy and Significance
    • Family
    Official title (Latin): Joannes III, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogitiae, Livoniae, Smolenscie, Kijoviae, Volhyniae, Podlachiae, Severiae, Czerni...
    Official title (Polish): Jan III, z łaski bożej, król Polski, wielki książę litewski, ruski, pruski, mazowiecki, żmudzki, kijowski, wołyński, podlaski i czernichowski, etc.
    English translation: John III, by the grace of God King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia, Podlasie, Severia, and Chernihi...


    John Sobieski was born on 17 August 1629, in Olesko, now Ukraine, then part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to a renowned noble family de Sobieszyn Sobieski of Janina coat of arms. His father, Jakub Sobieski, was the Voivode of Ruthenia and Castellan of Kraków; his mother, Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz was a granddaughter of Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski. John Sobieski spent his childhood in Żółkiew. After graduating from the Nowod...


    By 26 May 1656 he received the position of the chorąży koronny (Standard-bearer of the Crown). During the three-day-long battle of Warsaw of 1656, Sobieski commanded a 2,000-man strong regiment of Tatar cavalry. He took part in a number of engagements over the next two years, including the Siege of Toruń in 1658. In 1659 he was elected a deputy to the Sejm (Polish-Lithuanian parliament), and was one of the Polish negotiators of the Treaty of Hadiach with the Cossacks. In 1660 he took part in...

    King of Poland-Lithuania

    Though Poland-Lithuania was at that time the largest and one of the most populous states of Europe, Sobieski became a king of a country devastated by almost half a century of constant war. The treasury was almost empty and the court had little to offer the powerful magnates, who often allied themselves with foreign courts rather than the state. Sobieski had a number of long term plans, including establishing his own dynasty in the Commonwealth, regaining lost territories, and strengthening th...

    Sobieski is remembered in Poland as a "hero king", victor at Vienna who defeated the Ottoman threat, an image that became particularly well recognized after his story was told in many works of 19th century literature. In the Polski słownik biograficzny he is described as "an individual above his contemporaries, but still one of them"; an oligarch and a magnate, interested in personal wealth and power. His ambitions for the most part were instilled in him by his beloved wife, whom he undoubtedly loved more than any throne (when being forced to divorce her and marry the former Queen as a condition to gain the throne, he immediately refused the throne) and tended to obey, at times blindly. He failed to reform the ailing Commonwealth, and to secure the throne for his heir. At the same time, he displayed high military prowess, he was well educated and literate, and a patron of science and arts. He supported the astronomer Johannes Hevelius, mathematician Adam Adamandy Kochański and the h...

    On 5 July 1665, he married the widow of Jan "Sobiepan" Zamoyski, Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien (1641–1716), of Nevers, Burgundy, France. Their children were: 1. James Louis Sobieski (2 November 1667 – 19 December 1737), Crown Prince of Poland, married Countess Palatine Hedwig Elisabeth of Neuburg and had issue. 2. Twin Daughters (9 May 1669), stillborn or died shortly after birth. 3. Teresa Teofila (October 1670), was a frail child and failed to survive for more than a month. 4. Adelajda Ludwika (15 October 1672 – 10 February 1677), called "Barbelune", died at the age of four. 5. Maria Teresa (18 October 1673 – 7 December 1675), called "La Mannone", died at the age of two. 6. Daughter (October 1674), stillborn or died shortly after birth. 7. Teresa Kunegunda (4 March 1676 – 10 March 1730), married Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria and had issue. 8. Aleksander Benedykt (6 September 1677 – 19 November 1714), died unmarried. 9. Daughter (13 November 1678), stillb...