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  1. List of rulers of Brandenburg - Wikipedia

    Nov 14, 2020 · It was created in 1157 as the Margraviate of Brandenburg by Albert the Bear, Margrave of the Northern March. In 1356, by the terms of the Golden Bull of Charles IV , the Margrave of Brandenburg was given the permanent right to participate in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor with the title of Elector ( German : Kurfürst ).

    Frederick I Friedrich I
    21 September 1371
    30 April 1415 – 20 September 1440
    20 September 1440
    Frederick I Friedrich I
    21 September 1371
    20 September 1440
    16 November 1464
    16 November 1464
  2. Frederick Henry, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt - Wikipedia,_Margrave...

    Nov 15, 2020 · Frederick Henry, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (21 August 1709, in Schwedt – 12 December 1788, in Schwedt) was the last owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His father was Margrave Philip William; his mother was Charlotte Johanna, a daughter of Prince John George II of Anhalt-Dessau and Princess Henriette Catherine ...

  3. Albert I | margrave of Brandenburg | Britannica

    Nov 14, 2020 · Albert I, the first margrave of Brandenburg and founder of the Ascanian dynasties. He was one of the main leaders of 12th-century German expansion into eastern Europe. In 1123 Albert inherited Saxon estates between the Harz Mountains and the middle reaches of the Elbe River from his father, Otto

  4. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    5 days ago · Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, king of Germany from 1411, king of Bohemia from 1419, king of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman emperor from 1433 until 1437, and the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.

  5. Henry III, Margrave of Meissen - Wikipedia

    Henry III, called Henry the Illustrious (Heinrich der Erlauchte) (c. 1215 – 15 February 1288) from the House of Wettin was Margrave of Meissen and last Margrave of Lusatia (as Henry IV) from 1221 until his death; from 1242 also Landgrave of Thuringia

  6. Brief History of Europe/High Middle Ages - Wikibooks, open ...
    • States and Territories of The High Middle Ages
    • France and England
    • Holy Roman Empire
    • Christianity and The Great Schism
    • Islam and The Crusades
    • Mongol Invasions
    • Medieval Renaissances and Cultural Changes

    States and territories of the High Middle Ages included: Northern Europe 1. Britain Isles included England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. Nordic countries included Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, and lands of the Sami and Finns. Valdemar I of Denmark saw his country becoming a leading force in northern Europe. Western and Central Europe 1. Consisted of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Eastern Europe 1. In the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1569), Casimir III of Poland doubled the size of kingdom by the end of his reign (1333–1370) and considerably strengthened the nation. Around the Baltic Sea there were Finnic Estonians and Livonians; and Baltic Tribes, composed of Balts, including Old Prussians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. Further east was Kievan Rus' (882–1240; founded by the Rus' people), and the Novgorod Republic (1136–1478). The Balkans were dominated by five states: Hungary (which gained hegemony over Croatia, Bosnia, Slavonia, Dalmatia and Transylvania); Grand Principal...


    France developed from West Francia (the Kingdom of the West Franks, 843–987), formed from the division of the Carolingian Empire under the Treaty of Verdun (843). Until 987 they were ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, Robertian dynasty, and Bosonid dynasty. From 987, France was ruled by the Capetian dynasty, beginning with Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris. The lands directly controlled and taxed by the French king were known as the domaine royal, and these would grow as the French...


    Normans: came from Normandy, a northern region of France, and were descended from Vikings and indigenous Gallo-Romans and Franks. They gained gained political legitimacy in 911 when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear allegiance to King Charles III of West Francia, in exchange for ceding them lands. Culturally, they were known for their Norman architecture (also known as Romanesque architecture); they adopted a Gallo-Romance language called Norman French. From the 11th century onwards the...

    England and the Angevin Empire

    After the Norman conquest of England, which began with the Battle of Hastings (1066), England was ruled by the House of Normandy; the reign of William the Conqueror(1066–1087), was followed by that of his sons William II (1087–1100) and Henry I (1100–1135). But after the death of Henry I, a succession crisis between the Empress Matilda (Henry I's daughter), and Stephen of Blois (Henry I's nephew), brought about the Anarchy(1135–1153), a period of civil war between the claimants. The Anarchy w...

    Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), of Emperor Otto I the Great, was a union of East Francia and Italy. Otto was a Saxon, and Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936; King of Italy from 961; and Holy Roman Emperor between 962–973, after a large interregnum (gap) between 924–962 (38 years). The Nazis considered it to be the first German Reich (Deutsches Reich), where reichis roughly comparable to "realm". Before their coronation as emperors, or as heir-apparents, their rulers were designated as kings, most commonly as "King of the Romans". By 947, the former Francia had divided into four kingdoms: West Francia; East Francia; Kingdom of Italy; Kingdom of Arles. East Francia and the Kingdom of Italy initially formed the Holy Roman Empire; later on Bohemia (which was never part of Francia) and the Kingdom of Arles joined. West Francia would go on to form the Kingdom of France. 1. 1.East Francia by 962 had six stem duchies: (i) Franconia; (ii) Swabia (former Alamannia); (iii) Saxony;...

    Christianity: is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ as described in the New Testament. Christians, the members of the faith, believe that Jesus is the Messiah as prophesied in the Old Testament; and, apart from Nontrinitarians, that God is a Holy Trinity of the Father, the Son of God (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Early Christianity was from its origins (c. 30–36) until the First Council of Nicaea (325); this created the Nicene Creed and was the first ecumenical council. Constantine the Great(who reigned East 306–324, and East and West 324–337) was the first Christian Roman Emperor. By the time of the 6th century, Christianity was dominate throughout Europe, but not including northern and eastern Europe, and Scandinavia. By the time of the 11th century, the majority of Europe was Christianised, with the exception of some Baltic states and eastern Scandinavia, and Islamic Iberia. Great Schism, or East–West Schism, of 1054: the Roman Cathol...

    Islam before the Mongol invasions

    The Islamic Golden Age continued into the High Middle Ages. Although the influence of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) would wane, they would continue to be recognized as caliphs by most Islamic dynasties, and would survive until the Mongol invasions. The Iranian Intermezzo ended with the rise of some Islamic Turkic dynasties in the Middle East; these included: 1. Ghaznavid dynasty(977–1186) was a Turkic Sunni Muslim dynasty that gained territories, including from both the Iranian Samanids an...

    Crusades and crusaders

    The crusades were a series of holy wars, predominantly Christians against Muslim-held territories. The immediate cause was the Byzantine–Seljuk wars(1048–1308), an ongoing conflict over Anatolia, and in 1095 the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Pope Urban II; Urban II responded by calling for war against the Seljuk Turks in the Holy Land. The crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers....

    Crusades to the Holy Land and Latin Empire

    There were nine numbered Crusades to the Holy Land (1095–1291), but there were many additional ones. The popular crusades(1096–1320) were unsanctioned by the Church, and were minor crusades which achieved very little; they included the People's Crusade (1096), Children's Crusade (1212), Shepherds' Crusade (of 1251 and 1320), and Crusade of the Poor (1309). The Seljuks held Jerusalem, from 1073–1098; before that it had been held by the Byzantines (to 638) and the Caliphates. After that, Jerusa...

    Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206; it eventually covered most of central Asia from the west to east. Mongolsoriginated from Mongolia, and spoke the Mongolian language; they were a group of steppe nomads. Khan is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongols living to the north of China. An estimated 30 to 80 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol Empire. By c. 1294, with the death of Kublai Khan, it had fractured into independent states: 1. Golden Horde(1242–1502), a khanate in the north-west, mostly north of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. It would disintegrate to many other khanates in the fifteenth century. 2. Ilkhanate(1256–1335) a short-lived khanate in the south-west, across the Middle East and Persia. 3. Chagatai Khanate(1226–1705) in central Asia, centered on present-day Kyrgyzstan. It would decline to other dynasties. 4. Yuan dynasty(1271–1368) in the east, succeeded the Song dynasty (960–1279). Based in modern-day Beijing, it inc...

    Medieval renaissances can refer to various movements in the latter half of the Early Middle Ages, and during the High Middle Ages. 1. Carolingian renaissance, of the 8th and 9th centuries, was a period of renewed cultural and intellectual movements associated with the rise of the Carolingian Empire, and the Carolingian court. 2. Ottonian renaissance, of the 10th and 11th centuries, was a similar phenomenon associated with the Ottonian period of the Holy Roman Empire. Otto I, Otto II and Otto III ruled the culturally Germanic empire between 936–1002, and created a revival particularly in arts and architecture. 3. Renaissance of the 12th century:included social, political and economic transformations; intellectual revitalization (philosophical and scientific). It included Latin translations of Arabic sources. In the thirteenth century, Thomas Aquinas developed scholasticism (early critical thought in a religious context) with his Summa Theologica; written between 1265 and 1274, it was...

  7. Wilhelmine of Prussia, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth ...

    Nov 09, 2020 · After much talk of other matches came to nothing, Wilhelmine was eventually married in 1731 to her Hohenzollern kinsman, Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. Frederick had been engaged to Wilhelmine's younger sister, Sophie , but at the last moment King Frederick William I decided to replace her with Wilhelmine.

  8. 弗雷德里克 (威尔士亲王) - 维基百科,自由的百科全书腓特烈_(威爾斯親王)

    外高祖父:勃兰登堡-安斯巴赫侯爵 约阿希姆·恩斯特 ( 英语 : Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach ) 外曾祖父: 勃蘭登堡-安斯巴赫侯爵 阿爾伯特二世 ( 英语 : Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach )

  9. 欧根亲王 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书欧根亲王_(萨伏伊)

    勃蘭登堡-拜羅伊特藩侯克里斯蒂安·恩斯特 ( 英语 : Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth ) 薩伏伊-卡里尼昂親王弗朗索瓦·歐根; 約翰·卡爾·帕爾菲伯爵; 第三代卡林福特伯爵弗朗西斯·塔菲 ( 英语 : Francis Taaffe, 3rd Earl of Carlingford ) 斐迪南·馮·施塔德 ...

  10. Lista de obras de arte de Lucas Cranach, o Velho – Wikipédia ...

    Nov 16, 2020 · Esta é uma lista de obras de arte de Lucas Cranach, o Velho, pintor e gravador do século XVI.. Lucas Cranach, o Velho, foi batizado como Lucas Müller. Nasceu no ano de 1472 em Cranach atual Kronach, na Alemanha e faleceu em 16 de outubro de 1553 na localidade de Weimar.

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