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  1. Henry III of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Henry_III_of_England

    Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War.

  2. Henry III of England - World History Encyclopedia

    www.worldhistory.org › Henry_III_of_England

    Dec 18, 2019 · Henry III of England ruled from 1216 to 1272 CE. The son of the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE), Henry was immediately faced with the ongoing Barons' War which had been fuelled by discontent over John's rule and his failure to honour the Magna Carta charter of liberties.

    • Mark Cartwright
  3. Henry III of England - New World Encyclopedia

    www.newworldencyclopedia.org › entry › Henry_III_of
    • Succession
    • Attitudes and Beliefs During His Reign
    • Criticisms
    • Marriage and Children
    • References

    Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle. He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. After his father John’s death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England, in 1066. Under John's rule, the barons were supporting an invasion by Prince Louis of France because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents reissued Magna Cartain his name, on November 12, 1216, omitting some clauses, such as clause 61, and again in 1217. When he turned eighteen in 1225, Henry III himself reissued Magna Carta again, this time in a shorter version with only 37 articles.

    As Henry reached maturity, he was keen to restore royal authority, looking towards the autocratic model of the French monarchy. Henry married Eleanor of Provence and he promoted many of his French relatives to higher positions of power and wealth. For instance, one Poitevin, Peter des Riveaux, held the offices of Treasurer of the Household, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe, Lord Privy Seal, and the sheriffdoms of twenty-one English counties simultaneously. Henry's tendency to govern for long periods with no publicly-appointed ministers who could be held accountable for their actions and decisions did not make matters any easier. Many English barons came to see his method of governing as foreign. Henry was much taken with the cult of the Anglo-Saxon saint king Edward the Confessor, who had been canonized in 1161. Told that St Edward dressed austerely, Henry took to doing the same and wearing only the simplest of robes. He had a mural of the saint painted in his bedchamber for inspiratio...

    Henry's advancement of foreign favorites, notably his wife's Savoyard uncles and his own Lusignan half-siblings, was unpopular with his subjects and barons. He was also extravagant and avaricious; when his first child, Prince Edward, was born, Henry demanded that Londoners bring him rich gifts to celebrate. He even sent back gifts that did not please him. Matthew Paris reports that some said, "God gave us this child, but the king sells him to us."

    Married on January 14, 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, to Eleanor of Provence, with at least five children born: 1. Edward I (1239–1307) 2. Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland 3. Beatrice of England(1242–1275), married to John II, Duke of Brittany 4. Edmund Crouchback (1245–1296) 5. Katharine (1253–1257), became deaf at age 2. There is reason to doubt the existence of several attributed children of Henry and Eleanor. Richard, John, and Henry are known only from a fourteenth century addition made to a manuscript of Flores historiarum, and are nowhere contemporaneously recorded. William is an error for the nephew of Henry's half-brother, William de Valence. Another daughter, Matilda, is found only in the Hayles abbey chronicle, alongside such other fictitious children as a son named William for King John, and a bastard son named John for King Edward I. Matilda's existence is doubtful, at best.

    Carpenter, David. The Minority of Henry III. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 9780520072398
    Costain, Thomas Bertram. The Magnificent Century. Cutchogue, N.Y.: Buccaneer Books, 1997. ISBN 9781568493718
    Ridley, Jasper Godwin. Statesman and Saint: Cardinal Wolsey, Sir Thomas More, and the Politics of Henry VIII. New York: Viking Press, 1983. ISBN 9780670489053
  4. Henry III | king of England [1207–1272] | Britannica

    www.britannica.com › biography › Henry-III-king-of

    Henry III, (born October 1, 1207, Winchester, Hampshire, Eng.—died November 16, 1272, London), king of England from 1216 to 1272.

  5. Henry III of England - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Henry_III_of_England

    Henry III (1 October 1207–16 November 1272) became King of England in 1216 when he was 9 years old, after the early death of his father King John. He would end up ruling as king for 56 years (though he would only effectively rule for around 45 due to his youth in the first years).

    • 18/19 October 1216 – 16 November 1272
    • John
  6. King Henry III - Historic UK

    www.historic-uk.com › King-Henry-III

    History UK. History of England. King Henry III. by Jessica Brain. In 1216, at just nine years of age, young Henry became King Henry III of England. His longevity on the throne would only be outdone by George III in 1816. His reign saw turbulent and dramatic changes take place with baron-led rebellions and the confirmation of the Magna Carta.

  7. Henry III, king of England - geni family tree

    www.geni.com › people › Henry-III-King-of-England

    Jan 22, 2019 · Henry III reigned 1216-1272. [S1375] The Thirteenth Century, 1216-1307 (1953), Powicke, Frederick Maurice, Sir, (The Oxford History of England, vol. 4. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953), FHL book 942 H2oh v. 4., p. 268.

    • October 01, 1207
  8. Henry III of England | Royal Family Wiki | Fandom

    royalfamily.fandom.com › wiki › Henry_III_of_England
    • Birth
    • Coronation
    • Attitudes and Beliefs During His Reign
    • Criticisms
    • Death
    • Appearance
    • Marriage and Children
    • Trivia
    • See Also

    Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle. He was the son of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.

    After his father John’s death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Under John's rule, the barons were supporting an invasion by Prince Louis of France because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents immediately declared their intention to rule by the Magna Carta, which they proceeded to do during Henry’s minority. The Magna Carta was reissued in 1217 as a sign of goodwill to the barons and the country was ruled by regents until 1227.

    As Henry reached maturity he was keen to restore royal authority, looking towards the autocratic model of the French monarchy. Henry married Eleanor of Provence and he promoted many of his French relatives higher positions of power and wealth. For instance, one Poitevin, Peter des Riveaux, held the offices of Treasurer of the Household, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and the sheriffdomsof twenty-one English counties simultaneously. Henry's tendency to govern for long periods with no publicly-appointed ministers who could be held accountable for their actions and decisions did not make matters any easier. Many English barons came to see his method of governing as foreign. Henry was much taken with the cult of the Anglo-Saxon saint king Edward the Confessor who had been canonised in 1161. Told that St Edward dressed austerely, Henry took to doing the same and wearing only the simplest of robes. He had a mural of the saint painted in his bedchamber for inspira...

    Henry's advancement of foreign favourites, notably his wife's Savoyard uncles and his own Lusignan half-siblings, was unpopular with his subjects and barons. He was also extravagant and avaricious; when his first child, Prince Edward I, was born, Henry demanded that Londoners bring him rich gifts to celebrate. He even sent back gifts that did not please him. Matthew Paris reports that some said, "God gave us this child, but the king sells him to us."

    Henry's reign ended when he died in 1272, after which he was succeeded by his son, Edward I. His body was laid, temporarily, in the tomb of Edward the Confessor while his own sarcophagus was constructed in Westminster Abbey.

    According to Nicholas Trevet, Henry was a thickset man of medium height with a narrow forehead and a drooping left eyelid (inherited by his son, Edward I).

    Married on 14 January 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, to Eleanor of Provence, with at least five children born: 1. Edward I(1239–1307) 2. Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland 3. Beatrice of England(1242–1275), married to John II, Duke of Brittany 4. Edmund Crouchback(1245–1296) 5. Katharine (1253–1257) There is reason to doubt the existence of several attributed children of Henry and Eleanor. Richard, John, and Henry are known only from a 14th century addition made to a manuscript of Flores historiarum, and are nowhere contemporaneously recorded. William is an error for the nephew of Henry's half-brother, William de Valence. Another daughter, Matilda, is found only in the Hayles abbey chronicle, alongside such other fictitious children as a son named William for King John, and a bastard son named John for King Edward I. Matilda's existence is doubtful, at best. For further details, see Margaret Howell, The Children of King Henry III and Eleanor...

    In The Divine Comedy Dante sees Henry ("the king of simple life") sitting outside the gates of Purgatorywith other contemporary European rulers.
    His Royal Motto was qui non dat quod habet non accipit ille quod optat, He who does not give what he has, does not receive what he wants...
    His favorite wine was made with the Loire Valley red wine grape Pineau d'Auniswhich Henry first introduced to England in the thirteenth century.
    Matthew Paris
    Roger of Wendover
    Nicholas Trevet
  9. Henry III of England: The Restrained King - The European ...

    theeuropeanmiddleages.com › england › henry-iii-of
    • King of England
    • Favorites
    • Simon Returns
    • Worsening Rule
    • Civil War
    • Final Years
    • Conclusion
    • Sources

    At the beginning of Henry III’s reign, a regency council formed to help him rule. On the king’s behalf, the council reinstated Magna Carta. The document limited the monarchy’s power while guaranteeing rights. Initially signed by John, the former king had refused to honor it. However, with a young king in charge, the council reinstated the document. In turn, Magna Carta’s restrictions would limit Henry’s authority as king. In 1234, Henry III personally began to rule. During the 27-year-old king’s prolonged regency, his ministers had violated Magna Carta multiple times. In retaliation, barons began rebelling against the government. When faced with the crisis, Henry declared he would consult with the barons in the future and enforce Magna Carta. Shaken by the ordeal, the king began looking for a role model to base his reign on. Henry III had lost his father at an early age. As such, the king displayed an attachment to those he saw as father figures. Searching through English history, t...

    Savoyards

    In January 1236, Henry III married Eleanor of Provence. Although the new queen didn’t bring any French land to the marriage, Eleanor did bring connections to other European monarchs and the papacy. She also brought along some of her relatives, which proved unpopular with the barons. Impressed by the Savoyards, Henry generously gave positions of power to the queen’s relatives.

    Simon de Montfort

    In 1230, a French knight named Simon de Montfort arrived in England. Seeking to regain his family’s lost earldom of Leicester, Simon met with Henry III in 1231. It would be a life-changing meeting for both men. Soon after, Henry and Simon became close friends. Recognizing his value as an ally, the king allowed Simon to marry his sister, Eleanor, in January 1238. Simon’s marriage to Eleanor caused many issues. Since Eleanor had taken a vow of chastity, her marriage broke her holy oath. If she...

    In 1242, Simon de Montfort returned to England. In the meantime, Henry III had once again began focusing on France. Denied taxes by the barons, the king needed all the money and military experience he could get. While on crusade, Simon had proven himself to be a capable general and skilled warrior. As a result, a desperate Henry happily welcomed him back.

    During the 1250s, Henry III continued to make poor decisions. His Lusignan relatives proved to be both unruly and violent. They committed many crimes and believed that they were immune to punishment. Since the king relied on them for financial aid, he issued an order in 1256 that protected the Lusignans from imprisonment. As a result, Henry began to be seen as a puppet ruler. Another costly decision Henry III made involved Sicily. In 1254, Pope Innocent IV offered the Sicilian crown to the king. Although a faraway territory, Henry viewed Sicily as an opportunity to expand English influence. He reasoned that if his second son, Edmund, claimed the throne, then Henry could use Sicily as a new source of income. In response to his proposal, the English barons flatly denied the king funding.

    On May 14, 1264, Simon de Montfort led a rebel army against Henry III. In 1262, the king had obtained permission from the pope to no longer follow the Provisions of Oxford. Seeing no other way to convince Henry to rule well, Simon and the barons rebelled in 1263. Initially, the rebels gained control of southern England. However, the royal army gradually reclaimed land until the rebels only controlled London. At the Battle of Lewes, the royal army suffered a humiliating defeat. As a consequence, Simon captured both Henry III and his son, Prince Edward. In turn, Simon would rule through a powerless Henry for over a year. However, Simon proved to be a divisive ruler, and England remained in a chaotic state. While Simon focused on controlling the king, Edward managed to escape. Raising another army, Edward’s troops fought against Simon’s rebels at the Battle of Evesham in August 1265. Unlike Lewes, Evesham ended in a royalist victory. During the battle, a hit squad of 12 knights searche...

    After the Battle of Evesham, Henry III regained his throne. Subsequently, those who had rebelled against the king lost their lands. Instead of healing the kingdom, Henry’s vengeful actions only caused further strife. Because of this, Edward had to crush multiple rebellions. By the late 1260s, England began to finally experience peace. On November 16, 1272, Henry died a senile, old man, leaving England to his heir, Edward I.

    Henry III had one of the longest reigns in English history. Although he hoped to be a strong king like his ancestors, Magna Carta limited Henry’s authority. However, the king’s poor decision making allowed his foreign relatives to run rampant and he continuously upset the nobility. In turn, Henry nearly lost his throne. However, his son, Edward, would succeed where his father had failed and re-establish the monarchy’s supremacy during his reign.

    Cawthorne, N. (2012). Kings & Queens of England: From the Saxon Kings to the House of Windsor. London: Arcturus. Jones, D. (2012). The Plantagenets: the warrior kings and queens who made England. New York, NY: Penguin Books. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019, November 12). Henry III. Retrieved May 9, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-III-king-of-England-1207-1272

  10. Henry III of England Biography - Facts, Childhood, Life ...

    www.thefamouspeople.com › profiles › henry-iii-of

    Who was Henry III of England? Also known as Henry of Winchester, Henry III was king of England, Duke of Aquitaine and the Lord of Ireland. He was born in 1207 as the heir to the royal English throne after King John, his father.

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