Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
Nov 09, 2009 · One of the most renowned kings in English history, Henry V (1387-1422) led two successful invasions of France, cheering his outnumbered troops to victory at
Henry V, (born September 16?, 1387, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales—died August 31, 1422, Bois de Vincennes, France), king of England (1413–22) of the house of Lancaster, son of Henry IV. As victor of the Battle of Agincourt (1415, in the Hundred Years’ War with France), he made England one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe. Early life
- Birth and Early Life
- Tensions in Court
- Becoming The Heir
- Relationship with Richard II
- Experience in Battle
- Lessons Learned in Wales
- Involvement in Politics
- Threat of Civil War and Ascension to The Throne
- Early Reforms
- Uniting The Nation
The future Henry V was born Henry of Monmouth at Monmouth Castle into one of England's most powerful noble families. His parents were Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby, a man who had once tried to curb the ambitions of his cousin, King Richard II, but now acted loyally, and Mary Bohun, heir to a rich chain of estates. His grandfather was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III, a staunch supporter of Richard II, and the most powerful English noble of the age. At this point, Henry was not considered an heir to the throne and his birth was thus not recorded formally enough for a definitive date to have survived. Historians can't agree on whether Henry was born on August 9th or September 16th, in 1386 or 1387. The current leading biography, by Allmand, uses 1386; however, the introductory work by Dockray uses 1387. Henry was the oldest of six children and he received the best upbringing an English noble could have, including training in martial skills, riding, and form...
In 1397 Henry Bolingbroke reported treasonous comments made by the Duke of Norfolk; a court was convened but, as it was one Duke's word against another, trial by battle was arranged. It never took place. Instead, Richard II intervened in 1398 by exiling Bolingbroke for ten years and Norfolk for life. Subsequently, Henry of Monmouth found himself a "guest" at the royal court. While the word hostage was never used, there was underlying tension behind his presence and the implicit threat to Bolingbroke should he disobey. However, the childless Richard appeared to have a genuine fondness for young Henry and he knighted the boy.
In 1399, Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, died. Bolingbroke should have inherited his father's estates but Richard II revoked them, kept them for himself and extended Bolingbroke's exile to life. By this time, Richard was already unpopular, seen as an ineffective and increasingly autocratic ruler but his treatment of Bolingbroke cost him the throne. If the most powerful English family could lose their land so arbitrarily and illegally; if the most loyal of all men is rewarded by his heir's disinheritance; what rights did other landowners have against this king? Popular support swung to Bolingbroke, who returned to England where he was met by many who urged him to seize the throne from Richard. This task was completed with little opposition the same year. On October 13th, 1399, Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, and two days later Henry of Monmouth was accepted by Parliament as heir to the throne, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester. Two months later...
Henry's rise to heir had been sudden and due to factors beyond his control, but his relationship with Richard II, especially during 1399, is unclear. Richard had taken Henry on an expedition to crush rebels in Ireland and, upon hearing of Bolingbroke's invasion, confronted Henry with the fact of his father's treason. The encounter, allegedly recorded by one chronicler, ends with Richard agreeing that Henry was innocent of his father's acts. Although he still imprisoned Henry in Ireland when he returned to fight Bolingbroke, Richard made no further threats against him. Furthermore, sources suggest that when Henry was released, he traveled to see Richard rather than return directly to his father. Is it possible that Henry felt more loyalty to Richard—as a king or a father figure—than to Bolingbroke? Prince Henry agreed to Richard's imprisonment but it is unclear whether this and Henry IV's decision to have Richard murdered had any effect on later events, such as the younger Henry's im...
Henry V's reputation as a leader began forming in his 'teenage' years, as he and took on responsibilities in the government of the realm. One example of this is the Welsh uprising led by Owain Glyn Dŵr. When the small uprising swiftly grew into a full-scale rebellion against the English crown, Henry, as Prince of Wales, had a responsibility to help fight this treason. Consequently, Henry's household moved to Chester in 1400 with Henry Percy, nicknamed Hotspur, in charge of military affairs. Hotspur was an experienced campaigner from whom the young prince was expected to learn. However, after several years of ineffective cross-border raiding, the Percys rebelled against Henry IV, culminating in the Battle of Shrewsburyon July 21st, 1403. The prince was wounded in the face by an arrow but refused to leave the fight. In the end, the king's army was victorious, Hotspur was killed, and the younger Henry famed throughout England for his courage.
Following the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry's involvement in military strategy increased greatly and he began forcing a change in tactics, away from raids and into the control of land through strong points and garrisons. Any progress was initially hampered by a chronic lack of funding—at one point, Henry was paying for the entire war from his own estates. By 1407, fiscal reforms facilitated the sieging of Glyn Dŵr castles, which finally fell by the end of 1408. With the rebellion fatally, Wales was brought back under English control just two years later. Henry's successes as king can be clearly tied to the lessons he learned in Wales, particularly the value of controlling strongpoints, approaches to dealing with the tedium and difficulties of besieging them, and the need for proper supply lines and a reliable source of adequate finances. He also experienced the exercise of royal power.
From 1406 to 1411, Henry played an ever-increasing role in the King's Council, the body of men who ran the nation's administration. In 1410, Henry took overall command of the council; however, the opinions and policies Henry favored were often counter to those favored by his fater—particularly where France was concerned. In 1411, the king became so irked that he dismissed his son from the council altogether. Parliament, however, were impressed by both the prince's energetic rule and his attempts to reform government finances. In 1412, the king organized an expedition to France led by Henry's brother, Prince Thomas. Henry—possibly still angry or sulking over his expulsion from the council—refused to go. The campaign was a failure and Henry was accused of staying in England to plot a coup against the king. Henry denied these accusations vigorously, obtaining a promise from Parliament to investigate and personally protesting his innocence to his father. Later in the year, more rumors...
Henry IV had never secured universal support for his seizure of the crown from Richard and by the end of 1412, his family's supporters were drifting into armed and angry factions. Fortunately for the unity of England, people realized Henry IV was terminally ill before these factions were mobilized and efforts were made to obtain peace between father, son, and brother. Henry IV died on March 20th, 1413, but if he had remained healthy, would his son have started an armed conflict to clear his name, or even seize the crown? It is impossible to know. Instead, Henry was proclaimed king on March 21st, 1413, and crowned as Henry V on April 9th. Throughout 1412, the younger Henry seemed to have been acting with righteous confidence, even arrogance and was clearly chafing against the rule of his father, but legends claim that the wild prince turned into a pious and determined man overnight. There may not be much truth in those tales, but Henry probably did appear to change in character as he...
For the first two years of his reign, Henry worked hard to reform and solidify his nation in preparation for war. The dire royal finances were given a thorough overhaul by streamlining and maximizing the existing system. The resulting gains weren't enough to fund a campaign overseas, but Parliament was grateful for the effort and Henry built on this to cultivate a strong working relationship with the Commons, resulting in generous grants of taxation from the people to fund a campaign in France. Parliament was also impressed with Henry's drive to tackle the general lawlessness into which vast areas of England had sunk. The peripatetic courts worked much harder than in Henry IV's reign to tackle crime, reducing the number of armed bands and trying to solve the long-term disagreements which fomented local conflict. The chosen methods, however, reveal Henry's continued eye on France, for many 'criminals' were simply pardoned for their crimes in return for military service abroad. The em...
Perhaps the most important 'campaign' Henry undertook in this phase was to unite the nobles and common people of England behind him. He showed and practiced a willingness to forgive and pardon families who had opposed Henry IV, none more so than the Earl of March, the lord Richard II had designated as his heir. Henry freed March from imprisonment and returned the Earl's landed estates. In return, Henry expected absolute obedience and he moved quickly and decisively to stamp out any dissent. In 1415 the Earl of March informed on plans to put him on the throne which, in truth, were merely the grumblings of three disaffected lords who had already abandoned their ideas. Henry acted swiftly to execute the plotters and remove their opposition. Henry also acted against the spreading belief in Lollardy, a pre-Protestant Christian movement, which many nobles felt was a threat to England's very society and which had previously had sympathizers at court. A commission was created to identify al...
- History Expert
- Accession to The Throne
- Foreign Affairs
- A Summing Up
- in Literature
- External Links
After his father Henry IV died on March 20, 1413, Henry V succeeded him and was crowned on April 9, 1413. With no past to embarrass him, and with no dangerous rivals, his practical experience had full scope. He had to deal with three main problems: the restoration of domestic peace, the healing of the Papal Schism in the Catholic Church, and the recovery of English prestige in Europe. Henry grasped them all together, and gradually built upon them a yet wider policy.
Henry could now turn his attention to foreign affairs. He revived the dynastic claim to the French throne and demanded a return of feudal land that previously belonged to the English crown. Old commercial disputes and the support which the French had lent to Owain Glyndŵr were also used as excuses for war, whilst the disordered state of France afforded no security for peace. Furthermore the French king, Charles VI, was prone to mental illness, and his eldest son, the Dauphin, an unpromising prospect.
Henry's last words were a wish that he might live to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. They are significant. His ideal was founded consciously on the models of Arthur and Godfrey as national king and leader of Christendom. So he is the typical medieval hero. Yet he was not reactionary. His policy was constructive: firm central government supported by parliament; church reform on conservative lines; commercial development; and the maintenance of national prestige. His aims in some respects anticipated those of his Tudor successors, but he would have accomplished them on medieval lines as a constitutional ruler. His success was due to the power of his personality. He could train able lieutenants, but at his death there was no one who could take his place as leader. War, diplomacy and civil administration were all dependent on his guidance. His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed to be mast...
Henry V is the subject of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare, which largely concentrates on his campaigns in France. In the play Henry is presented as the ideal monarch who wrestles with his conscience as he strives to do God's will. Such plays played an important role in the moral formation of English political culture by presenting a model of leadership to be emulated. Henry invites any soldiers who do not wish to fight to go home. Such freely given loyalty remains the basis of English patriotism. Henry himself always led from the front even risking his life to save others. In the play Shakespeare also explored important ideas such as the just war. As always different perspectives are articulated through the various characters. The final marriage scene of Henry and Catherine is an inspiring vision of the purposes and holiness of marriage and of international marriage as a way to bring about peace and reconciliation. Henry is also a main character in Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry...This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.Allmand, Christopher. Henry V. Yale, 1997. ISBN 0300073704Barker, Juliet. Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle. London: Abacus, 2006. ISBN 034911918XDockray, Keith. "Warrior King: The Life of Henry V." Stroud, UK: NPI Media Group, 2006. ISBN 0752423363
All links retrieved December 19, 2017. 1. Tyler, J. Endell. Henry of Monmouth:Memoirs of Henry the Fifth. Volume 1, Volume 2at Project Gutenberg. 2. Henry V of England ThoughtCo. 3. Monarchs of England - Henry V Britannia 4. A BBC piece presenting an alternative version of Henry V 5. Illustrated history of Henry V
The Hundred Years' War between England and France. 16 Sep 1387. Prince Henry, future Henry V of England, is born at Monmouth Castle. 21 Jul 1403. Henry IV of England defeats rebellious barons at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Prince Henry, future Henry V of England also participates. 1409.
Henry V (September 16, 1386 — August 31, 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was the King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.