Henry VII, (born c. 1269/74, Valenciennes, Hainaut—died Aug. 24, 1313, Buonconvento, near Siena, Italy), count of Luxembourg (as Henry IV), German king (from 1308), and Holy Roman emperor (from 1312) who strengthened the position of his family by obtaining the throne of Bohemia for his son.
HENRY VII, HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR Reigned Nov. 27, 1308, to Aug. 24, 1313; b. Henry IV of Luxembourg, between 1269 and 1279. Henry was chosen king of the Romans and emperor-elect after the assassination of Albert of Hapsburg.
Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1274 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg.
Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII - 1308-1313 Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg.
- Early Life
- King of The Romans
- Dante's Alto Arrigo
- Family and Children
Born on 12 July 1275 in Valenciennes, he was a son of Count Henry VI of Luxembourg and Béatrice from the House of Avesnes. Raised at the French court, he was the lord of comparatively small properties in a peripheral and predominantly French-speaking part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was symptomatic of the empire’s weakness that during his rule as the Count of Luxembourg, he agreed to become a French vassal, seeking the protection of King Philip the Fair of France. During his rule of Luxembourg, he ruled effectively, especially in keeping the peace in local feudal disputes.
Henry became caught up in the internal political machinations of the Holy Roman Empire with the assassination of King Albert I on 1 May 1308. Almost immediately, King Philip of France began aggressively seeking support for his brother, Charles of Valois, to be elected the next King of the Romans. Philip thought he had the backing of the French Pope Clement V (established at Avignon), and that his prospects of bringing the empire into the orbit of the French royal house were good. He lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors. Although Charles of Valois had the backing of Henry, Archbishop of Cologne, a French supporter, many were not keen to see an expansion of French power, least of all Clement V. The principal rival to Charles appeared to be Rudolf, the Count Palatine. Given his background, although he was a vassal of Philip the Fair, Henry was bound by few national ties, an aspect of his suitability as a compromise candidate among the electors, the gr...
Descent into Italy
While these negotiations were taking place, Henry began his descent into northern Italy in October 1310, with his eldest son John remaining in Prague as the Imperial vicar. As he crossed the Alps and travelled into the Lombard plain, nobles and prelates of both Guelph and Ghibelline factions hastened to greet him, and Dante circulated an optimistic open letter addressed to the rulers and the people. As Emperor, Henry had planned to restore the glory of the Holy Roman Empire, but he did not re...
Wars against Florence and Robert of Naples
Rome was in a state of confusion as Henry approached the city walls. The Orsini family had adopted the cause of Robert of Naples, while the Colonna family threw their weight behind Henry. With their partisans fighting in the streets, Henry was also confronted with the news that the Castel Sant'Angelo and the Vatican quarter were securely in the hands of Robert, the Angevin king of Naples, who had decided, with help from the Florentinesthat his own dynastic interests were not in favour of rene...
His first target was the Guelph city of Siena, which he began to besiege, but within a week, Henry succumbed to malaria, which fast saw him become seriously ill. Fading rapidly, he left Siena on August 22, and was sheltering in the little town of Buonconvento near Siena when he died on 24 August 1313.His body was taken to Pisa. Henry was not even 40 years old when he died, and the high hopes for an effective Imperial power in Italy died with him.
Henry is the famous alto Arrigo in Dante's Paradiso, in which the poet is shown the seat of honor that awaits Henry in Heaven. Henry in Paradisoxxx.137f is "He who came to reform Italy before she was ready for it". Dante also alludes to him numerous times in "Purgatorio" as the savior, who will bring imperial rule back to Italy, and end the inappropriate temporal control of the Church. Henry VII's success in Italy was not lasting, however, and after his death the anti-imperial forces regained control.
At Henry's death, and for the following decades, the central figure in Italian policy remained his nemesis, Robert of Naples. In the Empire, Henry's son, John the Blind, was elected King of Bohemia in 1310. After the death of Henry VII, two rivals, the Wittelsbach Ludwig of Bavaria and Frederick the Handsome of the House of Habsburg, laid claim to the crown. Their dispute culminated in the Battle of Mühldorf on 28 September 1322, which was lost by Frederick. Louis' Italian expedition (1327–29), made in the spirit of righting the wrongs done to Henry, was also abortive. The legacy of Henry was clearest in the successful careers of two among the local despots he made Imperial Vicars in northern cities, Can Grande of Verona and Matteo Visconti of Milan
Pisa was a Ghibelline city, which means that the city supported the Holy Roman Emperor. When Henry VII died, Pisans built a monumental tomb inside their cathedral. The tomb was centered behind the High Altar in the apse. The choice of place was intended to demonstrate the devotion of the Pisans to the Emperor. The tomb was built in 1315 by Tino di Camaino and was built above the grave itself, the statue of Henry VII lying above it and many other statues and angels. But the tomb didn't have a long life: for political reasons it was dismantled and the parts were reused in other places in the square. By 1985, the grave of the Emperor had been shifted to the right transept of the cathedral, near the tomb of Saint Ranieri; a couple of statues were put on the top of the façade and a number of statues portraying Henry VII himself and his counsellors were in the Cemetery. Nowadays the statues have been translated in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo in Pisa, while the tomb remains in the cathe...
Henry was married in Tervuren 9 July 1292 to Margaret of Brabant, daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant,and had the following children: 1. John I, King of Bohemia(10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) 2. Marie (1304–26 March 1324, Issoudun), married in Paris 21 September 1322 to King Charles IV of France. 3. Beatrix (1305–11 November 1319), married 1318 to King Charles I of Hungary.Georgina R. Cole-Baker, The Date of the Emperor Henry VII's Birth. The English Historical Review, Vol. 35, No. 138 (Apr., 1920), pp. 224–231.Michel Pauly (Ed.): Gouvernance européenne au bas moyen âge. Henri VII de Luxembourg et l’Europe des grandes dynasties. = Europäische Governance im Spätmittelalter Heinrich VII. von Luxemburg und d...Jones, Michael, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. VI: c. 1300-c. 1415, Cambridge University Press, 2000Kleinhenz, Christopher, Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia, Volume 1, Routledge, 2004
Genealogy profile for Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor Henry (c.1275 - 1313) - Genealogy Genealogy for Henry (c.1275 - 1313) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives.
Alto Arrigo was in fact Henry VII of Luxembourg (1275-1313) He was the the Holy Roman Emperor, descended to Italy in October 1310 and engaged for 3 years in intense political and military battles in the country.
Henry of Cologne's brother, Baldwin, Archbishop of Trier, won over a number of the electors, including Henry, in exchange for some substantial concessions. Henry VII was crowned king at Aachen on 6 January 1309, and emperor by Pope Clement V on 29 June 1312 in Rome, ending the interregnum.
Traditionally, kings of Germany also became Holy Roman Emperor, and thus Henry's reign as emperor dates from 1056 as well, but he was not crowned until 1084. Until he came of age, Henry's mother Agnes ruled in his place as regent; by 1066, however, sixteen-year-old Henry was in charge.
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