Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies which he held until 1180.
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Henry the Lion was the only son of Henry the Proud, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, and Gertrude, the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Lothar III. In May 1142 he recovered Saxony, one of the two duchies of which his father had been divested by Conrad III , the first Hohenstaufen German king.
Henry the Lion, 1129–95, duke of Saxony (1142–80) and of Bavaria (1156–80); son of Henry the Proud. His father died (1139) while engaged in a war to regain his duchies, and it was not until 1142 that Henry the Lion became duke of Saxony.
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Born in Ravensburg, in 1129 or 1131, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heir of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrude, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Brunswick. Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. This was because Henry the Proud had been his rival for the crown in 1138. Henry III, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156. However, the Eas...
Henry had the following known children: 1. By his first wife, Clementia of Zähringen (divorced 1162), daughter of Conrad I, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur: 1.1. Gertrude of Bavaria (1155–1197), married firstly to Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, and then secondly to King Canute VI of Denmark. 1.2. Richenza of Bavaria (c. 1157 – 1167) 1.3. Henry of Bavaria, died young. 2. by his second wife, Matilda of England (married 1168), daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine: 2.1. Matilda (or Richenza) (1172–1204), married firstly to Godfrey, Count of Perche, and secondly to Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy. 2.2. Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine(c. 1173–1227) 2.3. Lothar of Bavaria (c. 1174–1190) 2.4. Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia(c. 1175–1218) 2.5. William of Winchester, Lord of Lüneburg(1184–1213) Three other children are listed, by some sources, as having belonged to Henry and Matilda: 1. Eleanor of Bavaria (born 1178); died young 2. Ingib...
The Henry the Lion Bible is preserved in near mint condition from the year 1170; it is located in the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel, a town in Lower Saxony. Henry the Lion remains a popular figure to this day. During World War I, a nail man depicting Henry the Lion, called Eiserner Heinrich, was used in Brunswick to raise funds for the German war effort. Nazi propaganda later declared Henry an antecessor of the Nazi's Lebensraum policyand turned Brunswick Cathedral and Henry's tomb into a "National Place of Consecration". 1. Henry the Lion on the coat of arms of Schwerin. 2. Order of Henry the Lion, order of merit of the Duchy of Brunswick(awarded from 1834 to 1918). 3. Henry the Lion's Fountain (1874), Brunswick. 4. Eiserner Heinrich (1915), Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, Brunswick. 5. Henry the Lion Monument in front of the Dom. Schwerin.
Shortly after his death, Henry the Lion became the subject of a folktale, the so-called Heinrichssage. The tale was later also turned into the opera Enrico Leone by Italian composer Agostino Steffani. The Heinrichssage details a fictional account of Henry's pilgrimage to the Holy Land. A popular part of the tale deals with the Brunswick Lion. According to legend, Henry witnessed a fight between a lion and a dragon while on pilgrimage. He joins the lion in its fight and they slay the dragon. The faithful lion then accompanies Henry on his return home. After its master's death, the lion refuses all food and dies of grief on Henry's grave. The people of Brunswick then erect a statue in the lion's honour. The legend of Henry the Lion also inspired the Czech tale of the knight Bruncvík, which is depicted on a column on Charles Bridge in Prague. Henry the Lion appears in Age of Empires 2: The Age of Kingsin the Barbarossa campaign. He appears in the...Benjamin Arnold, "Henry the Lion and His Time", Journal of Medieval History, vol. 22, pp. 379–393 (1996)Emmerson, Richard K. (2013). Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136775185.Karl Jordan, Henry the Lion. A Biography, ISBN 0-19-821969-5Heinrich der Löwe und seine Zeit. Katalog der Ausstellung. Bd. 2. Braunschweig, 1995.
Henry the Lion (1129-6 August 1195) was Duke of Saxony from 1142 to 1180, succeeding Albert the Bear and preceding Bernard II of Saxony, and Duke of Bavaria from 1156 to 1180, succeeding Henry XI of Bavaria and preceding Otto I of Bavaria. The most famous Welf, Henry the Lion was the nemesis of Hohenstaufen leader and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and Henry established himself as a ...
Henry the Lion, 1129–95, duke of Saxony (1142–80) and of Bavaria (1156–80); son of Henry the Proud Henry the Proud, c.1108–1139, duke of Bavaria (1126–38) and of Saxony (1137–38).
Henry the Lion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.
- Scenario Instructions
- Historical Comparison
1. Starting Age: Castle Age 2. Starting resources: 1000 wood, 1000 food, 1000 gold 3. Population limit:75 4. Starting units: 4.1. 10 Pikemen 4.2. 6 Crossbowmen 4.3. 6 Knights 4.4. 1 Light Cavalry
1. Defeat Poland. 1.1. Defeat Henry the Lion.
1. The German states of Bavaria and Saxony are 'feeding' the armies of Barbarossa and Henry the Lion. Defend the helpless feeders at all costs.
1. Player (Teutons): The player starts in a central-western position on the map. All military building for training land units are at the player's disposal, but no Villagers, so the player cannot build up an economy.
1. Bavaria (Teutons): Bavaria lies in the southern part of the map, with only Villagersand civilian buildings, gathering resources and paying tribute to the player. 2. Saxony (Teutons): Saxony lies in the northwest. Just like Bavaria, they also have only Villagers and civilian buildings, gathering resources and paying tribute to the player.
Allies → Enemies
1. Henry the Lion (Teutons): Henry the Lion has his base at the western tip of the map, without any Villagers. He builds rams and Teutonic Knights. As his stance towards Poland is 'ally', his army does not resist the Polish invasion and simply gets slaughtered by the Polish (This is corrected in the Definitive Edition; while he is not particularly aggressive, he will attack the Polish if they attack him and may target the Castle near his base). In a later stage of the game, he becomes the pla...
The player starts from the central-western part of the map. Poland will have a navy attacking them in the early stage of the game, so they may need to build Fire Ships to defend themselves against the Polish navy. However, once the player has destroyed the Polish navy and they have stopped building a navy, they may start building Trade Cogs to trade with the Polish Docks. It is also possible to end the threat of a Polish navy very early on (at least on standard difficulty) by sending the player's Fire Ships to burn down their Docks in the very early game. The player will encounter War Galleys en route which they must eliminate, but this can almost instantly remove considerations of a Polish navy from the game. Poland will invade both the player and Henry the Lion (who will simply get slaughtered without resistance unless playing the Definitive Edition), and may occasionally attack Saxony and Bavaria. As Poland is attacking Henry the Lion, it would be advisable to at least destroy th...Henry the Lion has the same voice as the narrator of the Barbarossa campaign, foreshadowing the reveal that they are the same person in the final outro.This is one of two scenarios in which a player starts with over 20,000 points; namely, Henry and the Polish. The other scenario where this happens is York.The only way to win this scenario without being betrayed by Henry (and thus sharing a victory) is with the "i r winner" cheat.Like in the previous scenario, the player starts with a Light Cavalry even though it isn't available to the Teutonsotherwise.Barbarossa invaded Poland early in his reign, in 1157. However, the purpose was not conquest but the restoration of Wladyslaw II, who had fled to Germany after being overthrown by his brother, Bole...The second (if not main) inspiration of the scenario is Henry the Lion's campaigns against the Slavic Duchy of Pomerania on the lower Oder river in 1147, 1164, and 1177. Pomerania was once pledged...Henry was the Duke of Saxony since 1142 and was made Duke of Bavaria by Barbarossa in 1156, explaining why he remains allied with Saxony and Bavaria in the game despite betraying the player.Henry's eastern wars brought his downfall eventually, but in a less direct manner than in the scenario. Instead of rebelling against Barbarossa, he refused to provide troops for Barbarossa's Italia...
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Germany - Germany - The fall of Henry the Lion: Forced to retreat before the papacy and the Lombard League after the Battle of Legnano, Frederick cooled toward his Welf cousin, whom he could justly blame for some of his setbacks. Hitherto, the enemies of Henry—the princes, bishops, and magnates of Saxony—had been unable to gain a hearing against him at the emperor’s court days. By 1178 ...
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