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  1. Herbert Hoover - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Herbert_Hoover

    Herbert Hoover was born on August 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa. His father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German, Swiss, and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Ontario, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859.

  2. Herbert Hoover - Biography, Facts & Presidency - HISTORY

    www.history.com › topics › us-presidents
    • Early Years
    • Humanitarian Work
    • The Great Depression
    • Post-Presidential Years

    Herbert Clark Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa–the first U.S. president to be born west of the Mississippi River. He was the second of three children in a family of Quakers, who valued honesty, industriousness and simplicity. His father, Jesse Clark Hoover (1846-80), worked as a blacksmith, and his mother, Hulda Minthorn Hoover (1848-84), was a teacher. Orphaned at age nine, Hoover was raised primarily by an uncle in Oregon.After attending Quaker schools, Hoover became...

    At the start of World War I (1914-18), Hoover dedicated his talents to humanitarian work. He helped 120,000 stranded American tourists return home from Europe when the hostilities broke out, and coordinated the delivery of food and supplies to citizens of Belgium after that country was overrun by Germany.When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) appointed Hoover head of the Food Administration. Hoover encouraged Americans to reduce their consumption of meat a...

    In the U.S. presidential election of 1928, Hoover ran as the Republican Party’s nominee. Promising to bring continued peace and prosperity to the nation, he carried 40 states and defeated Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith (1873-1944), the governor of New York, by a record margin of 444-87 electoral votes. “I have no fears for the future of our country,” Hoover declared in his inaugural address. “It is bright with hope.”On October 24, 1929–only seven months after Hoover took office–a precip...

    The Depression worsened throughout Hoover’s term in office, and critics increasingly portrayed him as indifferent to the suffering of the American people. By the time of the 1932 presidential election, Hoover had become a deeply unpopular–even reviled–figure across much of the country. Carrying only six states, he was soundly defeated by Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt, the governor of New York, who promised to enact a slate of progressive reforms and economic relief programs that...

  3. Herbert Hoover | The White House

    www.whitehouse.gov › presidents › herbert-hoover

    Son of a Quaker blacksmith, Herbert Clark Hoover brought to the Presidency an unparalleled reputation for public service as an engineer, administrator, and humanitarian. Born in an Iowa village in...

  4. Herbert Hoover - Great Depression, Accomplishments & Facts ...

    www.biography.com › us-president › herbert-hoover

    Jan 22, 2021 · Herbert Hoover was the 31st president of the United States, whose term was notably marked by the stock market crash of 1929 and the beginnings of the Great Depression. Who Was Herbert Hoover?...

  5. Herbert Hoover | Presidency & Facts | Britannica

    www.britannica.com › biography › Herbert-Hoover

    Herbert Hoover, in full Herbert Clark Hoover, (born August 10, 1874, West Branch, Iowa, U.S.—died October 20, 1964, New York, New York), 31st president of the United States (1929–33).

  6. President Herbert Hoover | The Herbert Hoover Presidential ...

    hoover.archives.gov › hoovers › president-herbert-hoover
    • Personal
    • Early Career
    • Presidency
    • Post Presidency
    • Works Published by Herbert Hoover

    Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874–October 20, 1964), mining engineer, humanitarian, U.S. Secretary of Commerce, and 31st President of the United States, was the son of Jesse Hoover, a blacksmith, and Hulda Minthorn Hoover, a seamstress and recorded minister in the Society of Friends (Quakers). Hoover was born in West Branch, Iowa, where he enjoyed fishing in the local creek and working in his father’s blacksmith shop.Hoover lived in Iowa only for the first decade of his life. Orphaned at...

    Hoover graduated in 1895 over the next two decades to make his fortune as an international mining engineer and financier. By 1914, however, he yearned for more than wealth, and World War I provided him with an opportunity for public service. Initially, he aided Americans stranded in Europe. Later, he established the Commission for Relief in Belgium to provide food for the civilians trapped in the war zone.Hoover’s compassionate humanitarianism led to an invitation from Woodrow Wilson to becom...

    In 1928, when President Coolidge chose not to run for another term, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination despite never having held an elective office. In the November election, he defeated Alfred E. Smith, the Democratic governor of New York, in a landslide.As President, Hoover had hoped to govern in the progressive tradition of Theodore Roosevelt. And true to his dream, he devoted the first eight months of his Presidency to a variety of social, economic, and environmental reforms. Fol...

    Hoover devoted the next 12 years to writing books, speaking on issues of public concern, and serving as chairman of a number of philanthropic organizations. He became staunchly opposed to Roosevelt’s New Deal policies.In late May 1945, only six weeks after Roosevelt’s death, Hoover met with President Harry Truman and the two men planned for the recovery of postwar Europe. At Truman’s request, Hoover traveled the world to provide the President with a personal assessment of world food needs. Ho...

    1. The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover, Vols. 1-3, 1951-1952 2. On Growing Up, 1962 3. Fishing for Fun, 1963 4. The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, 1958 5. An American Epic,Vols. 1-4, 1959-1964 6. Public Papers of the Presidents of the U.S. Herbert Hoover, Vols. 1-4, 1974-1977

  7. The Great Depression | The Herbert Hoover Presidential ...

    hoover.archives.gov › exhibits › great-depression
    • 1929
    • 1930
    • 1931
    • 1932
    • 1933

    The 1920s were a period of optimism and prosperity – for some Americans. When Herbert Hoover became President in 1929, the stock market was climbing to unprecedented levels, and some investors were taking advantage of low interest rates to buy stocks on credit, pushing prices even higher. In October, 1929, the bubble burst, and in less than a week, the market dropped by almost half of its recent record highs. Billions of dollars were lost, and thousands of investors were ruined.After the stoc...

    Praise for the President’s intervention was widespread; the New York Times commented, “No one in his place could have done more. Very few of his predecessors could have done as much.” Together, government and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the entire previous year. Still consumers cut back their spending, which forced many businesses and manufacturers to reduce their output and lay off their workers.In October 1930, with unemployment rising, Hoover created the President...

    Economic conditions improved in early 1931 until a series of bank collapses in Europe sent new shockwaves through the American economy, leading to additional lay-offs. In August 1931, PECE was reorganized as the President’s Organization on Unemployment Relief (POUR). POUR expanded on PECE's work but also implemented a national fund drive for unemployment relief. The national fund drive raised millions of dollars but proved to be woefully inadequate as unemployment soared to record levels.Hoov...

    On January 22, 1932, Hoover established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make emergency loans to businesses in danger of default. At first the RFC lent money only to banks, railroads, and certain agricultural organizations, but the scope of its operations was later expanded, and it proved to be an effective tool for stabilizing business and industry. In July 1932, Hoover signed into law the Emergency Relief Construction Act, which allowed the RFC to lend $300 million to the sta...

    Four long months intervened between the election and Roosevelt's inauguration. Economic signs that had looked so promising in the summer of 1932 trended downward, unemployment went up, and banks failed at an alarming rate. As weak banks closed their doors, nervous depositors began withdrawing cash from even the soundest banks, but Congress refused to enact Hoover’s plans to stem the panic. When Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the banking system was near total collapse, and unemplo...

  8. Herbert Hoover: Domestic Affairs | Miller Center

    millercenter.org › president › hoover
    • Organizing The Hoover Administration
    • Early Months of The Hoover Administration
    • Causes of The Great Depression
    • Hoover and The Great Depression
    • Battles Over The Tariff and The Supreme Court
    • Into The Vortex
    • Hoover's New Approach

    Hoover's cabinet choices were generally strong ones. The standouts, like Secretary of State Henry Stimson, Secretary of the Interior Ray Wilbur, Secretary of the Navy Charles Adams, and Attorney General William Mitchell, more than compensated for lesser lights such as Secretary of War James Good, Secretary of Labor James Davis, Secretary of Commerce Robert Lamont, and Secretary of Agriculture Arthur Hyde. Postmaster General Walter F. Brown proved valuable to Hoover as the President's chief connection to (and adviser about) the Republican Party. At the Treasury Department, Hoover retained Coolidge's appointee, Andrew Mellon, even though Mellon's economic views were much less progressive than those of the President. Hoover instead depended on Undersecretary of the Treasury Odgen Mills for economic advice. In fact, Hoover stocked the higher reaches of various executive departments with confidantes he called on regularly for advice. Hoover's White House staff was, per contemporary custo...

    Hoover began his presidency with a burst of energy and enthusiasm that demonstrated his progressive political leanings. He directed the Department of the Interior to improve conditions for Native Americans on government-controlled reservations. He won passage of the Boulder Canyon Project Act, which mandated the construction of a massive dam (later named the Hoover Dam) that would provide power for public utilities in California. And he appointed the conservationist Horace Albright to the National Park Service and placed nearly two million acres of federal land in the national forest reserve, demonstrating his belief in the conservation of national resources. Underscoring his faith in the desirability of managerial expertise, the value of social science knowledge, and the benefits of private-public cooperation, Hoover convened a variety of conferences and appointed numerous commissions to study and solve vexing social problems. The White House Conference on Health and the Protection...

    The American economy of the 1920s, while prosperous, was fundamentally unsound. The economic collapse that defined the Great Depression did not occur all at once, nor for one particular reason. Historians have identified four interwoven and reinforcing causes of the nation's most severe economic crisis: structural weaknesses in both American agriculture and industry; the frailty of the international economy in the late 1920s and the early 1930s; and the overly speculative and unstable foundations of the American financial sector. As discussed previously, the nation's agricultural sector during the 1920s was unhealthy, a condition that was due largely to overproduction. But if the economic outlook looked bleak from the nation's fields, they appeared just as dreary from its factory floors. While industrial productivity and profits increased during the decade, wages remained stagnant. These profits, more often than not, were placed in the stock market or in speculative schemes rather t...

    The collapse of the stock market and the Great Depression did not catch Hoover completely unaware, although he surely—like the vast majority of Americans—was utterly surprised by the severity of these developments. As secretary of commerce, Hoover had worried about speculation in the stock market, even asking for new government regulation of banks and stock exchanges to prevent "insider trading" and the dangerous practice of "margin buying." He had also called on the Federal Reserve Board to raise interest rates, but the board lowered them instead, thus fueling a stock market boom in the two years prior to his presidency. During his first eight months in the White House, Hoover and his advisers continued to voice their concerns about the shape and future of the economy. Hoover supported the Agricultural Marketing Act because he believed it would shore up a weak agricultural sector. Suspicious of stock speculation, he approved of efforts by the Federal Reserve System to convince the...

    Nonetheless, during the first half of 1930, issues other than the nation's economic problems consumed much of Hoover's time. The death of Supreme Court Justice Edward Sanford left a vacancy on the Court that Hoover needed to fill. The President chose John J. Parker, a highly regarded judge on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Parker's nomination initially won wide support, but labor groups and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) argued that the judge's record was hostile toward unions and African-Americans. At Parker's Senate confirmation hearings, organized labor and the NAACP attacked the nomination; Progressive Republicans like Senator Borah, who already had a testy relationship with the President because of farm policy and the tariff, took the criticisms seriously. As a vote neared in the full Senate, some rank-and-file Republicans began to rethink their support for Parker. Hoover compounded the problem by failing to give Parker a strong pub...

    By 1931, members of Congress—especially Democrats and midwestern progressive Republicans—began to call even more vociferously for decisive government action to combat the effects of the Depression. They were particularly desirous of relief bills for farmers and the unemployed. Most of these bills failed, largely because progressives and liberals were a distinct minority in Congress. Increasingly, however, other members of Congress gave credence to these requests. While not a relief measure per se, Congress did pass (over Hoover's veto) the Bonus Bill in the winter of 1931. The bill allowed veterans to borrow up to one-half the value of life insurance policies that Congress had purchased in 1924; with the policies set to mature in 1945, early access to these funds came to be regarded as a "bonus." Likewise, Senator Robert Wagner of New York, perhaps the Senate's most prominent liberal, won passage of bills providing for the collection of unemployment statistics and the systematic pla...

    In late 1931, Hoover changed his approach to fighting the Depression. He justified his call for more federal assistance by noting that "We used such emergency powers to win the war; we can use them to fight the Depression, the misery, and suffering from which are equally great." This new approach embraced a number of initiatives. Unfortunately for the President, none proved especially effective. Just as important, with the presidential election approaching, the political heat generated by the Great Depression and the failure of Hoover's policies grew only more withering. The National Credit Corporation quickly proved insufficient, largely because its private-sector leaders were too tight-fisted and reluctant to bail-out smaller banks. As the NCC floundered, the Hoover administration drafted legislation for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The RFC, which would be government-run and funded, was designed to stabilize the nation's financial structures by providing credit to...

  9. Before FDR, Herbert Hoover Tried His Own 'New Deal' - HISTORY

    www.history.com › news › great-depression-herbert

    Feb 28, 2019 · The words may have sounded like Franklin D. Roosevelt touting his New Deal, but they were actually uttered by his predecessor, Herbert Hoover, on the campaign trail in 1932. Herbert Hoover riding...

  10. Worst Presidents: Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) | Politics | US News

    www.usnews.com › news › special-reports

    Dec 17, 2014 · Herbert Hoover, the 31st president, was elected on the eve of the Great Depression, came to the office with the skills of a consummate technocrat and manager. The Iowa native and Stanford-educated...

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