Herod I (/ ˈ h ɛr ə d /; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס , Modern: Hōrdōs, Tiberian: Hōrəḏōs; Greek: Ἡρῴδης Hērǭdēs; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Herod the Great, one of the most well-known rulers in Jewish history, is praised to this day for magnificent building projects of, for example, the temple in Jerusalem and fortresses like Herodium and Masada. Yet many are filled with disgust when learning about his cruel acts.
Herod, byname Herod the Great, Latin Herodes Magnus, (born 73 bce —died March/April, 4 bce, Jericho, Judaea), Roman-appointed king of Judaea (37–4 bce), who built many fortresses, aqueducts, theatres, and other public buildings and generally raised the prosperity of his land but who was the centre of political and family intrigues in his later years.
Sep 12, 2016 · Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea who ruled as a client of Rome. He has gained lasting infamy as the 'slaughterer of the innocents' as recounted in the New Testament's book of Mathew.
- Mark Cartwright
- Herod The Great's Story
- Life Lessons from Herod The Great
- Herod The Great's Family Tree
- Key Verses
Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Herod was a schemer who took advantage of Roman political unrest to claw his way to the top. During a civil war in the Empire, Herod won the favor of Octavian, who later became the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar. Once he was king, Herod launched an ambitious building program, both in Jerusalem and the spectacular port city of Caesarea, named after the emperor. He restored the magnificent Jerusalem temple, which was later destroyed by the Romans following a rebellion in A.D. 70. The biblical story of Herod the Great is told in Matthew 2:1-22; Luke1:5. In Matthew's Gospel, the Wise Men met Herod on their way to worship Jesus. He tried to trick them into revealing the child's location in Bethlehemon t...
Herod strengthened Israel's position in the ancient world by increasing its commerce and turning it into a trading hub for Arabia and the East. His massive building program included theaters, amphitheaters, a port, markets, temples, housing, palaces, walls around Jerusalem, and aqueducts. He kept order in Israel but by using secret police and tyrannical rule.
Herod worked well with Israel's Roman conquerors. As a skilled politician, he knew how to get things done.
Herod the Great was a brutal man who killed his father-in-law, several of his ten wives, and two of his sons. He ignored the laws of God to suit himself and chose the favor of Rome over his own people. Herod's heavy taxes to pay for lavish projects forced an unfair burden on the Jewish citizens.
Uncontrolled ambition can turn a person into a monster. God helps us keep things in the proper perspective when we focus on him above all else. Jealousy clouds our judgment. We should appreciate what God has given us instead of worrying about others. Great accomplishments are meaningless if done in a way that dishonors God. Christ calls us to loving relationshipsrather than building monuments to ourselves.
Father - Antipater Mother - Cyprus Wives - Doris, Mariamne I, Mariamne II, Malthace, Cleopatra (Jewish), Pallas, Phaedra, Elpis, others. Sons - Herod Antipas, Philip, Archelaus, Aristobulus, Antipater, others.
Matthew 2:1-3 "After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, 'Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.' When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him" (NIV). Matthew 2: 7-8 "Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. He sent them to Bethlehem and said, 'Go and make a careful search for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him' " (NIV).
- Early Years
- Early Reign
- Later Reign
- The Bitter End
Herod was born 73 BCE as the son of a man from Idumea named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much as possible. In the civil war between Pompey and Julius Caesar, Hyrcanus and Antipater sided with the latter, for which especially the courtier was rewarded: in 47, he was appointed epitropos("regent") and received the Roman citizenship. It was obvious that Antipater was the real power behind Hyrcanus' throne. He managed to secure the appointment of his son Herod to the important task of governor of Galilee. He launched a small crusadeagainst bandits, which made him very popular with the populace and impopular with the Sanhedrin. On March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar was mu...
Herod's monarchy was based on foreign weapons; the start of his reign had been marked by bloodshed. His first aim was to establish his rule on a more solid base. Almost immediately, he sent envoys to the Parthian king to get Hyrcanus back from Babylon. The Parthian king was happy to let the old man go, because he was becoming dangerously popular among the Jews living in Babylonia. Although Hyrcanus was unfit to become high priest again, Herod kept his father-in-law in high esteem. The support of the old monarch gave an appearance of legality to his own rule. The new king started an extensive building program: Jews could take pride in the new walls of Jerusalem and the citadel which guarded its Temple. (This fortress was called Antonia, in order to please Herod's patron Mark Antony.) Coins were minted in his own name and showed an incense burner on a tripod, intended to signify Herod's care for the orthodox Jewish cult practices. These coins had a Greek legend - HÈRÔDOU BASILEÔS - wh...
Herod's position was still insecure. He continued his building policy to win the hearts of his subjects. (A severe earthquake in 31 BCE had destroyed many houses, killing thousands of people.) In Jerusalem, the king built a new market, an amphitheater, a theater, a new building where the Sanhedrin could convene, a new royal palace, and last but not least, in 20 BCE he started to rebuild the Temple. And there were other cities where he ordered new buildings to be placed: Jericho and Samaria are examples. New fortresses served the security of both the Jews and their king: Herodion, Machaerus, and Masada are among them. But Herod's crowning achievement was a splendid new port, called Caesarea in honor of the emperor (the harbor was called Sebastos, the Greek translation of "Augustus"). This magnificent and opulent city, which was dedicated in 9 BCE, was built to rival Alexandria in the land trade to Arabia, from where spices, perfume and incense were imported. It was not an oriental to...
Herod concluded ten marriages, all for political purposes. They were probably all unhappy. His wives were: 1. Doris, from an unknown family in Jerusalem: married c.47, sent away 37; recalled 14, sent away 7/6. 1.1. She was the mother of Antipater, who was executed in 4. 2. The Hasmonaean princess Mariamme I: married 37, executed in 29/28. According to Flavius Josephus, Herod was passionately devoted to this woman, but she hated him just as passionately. 2.1. Five children: Alexander, Aristobulus, a nameless son, Salampsio and Cyprus. 3. Anunknown niece: married 37. No children. 4. An unknown cousin: married c.34/33. No children. 5. The daughter of a Jerusalem priest named Simon, Mariamme II: married 29/28, divorced 7/6. 5.1. They had a son named Herod. 6. A Samarian woman named Malthace: married 28, died 5/4. 6.1. Their children were Antipas, Archelausand Olympias. 7. A Jerusalem woman named Cleopatra: married 28. 7.1. They had two sons named, Herod and Philip. 8. Pallas: married 16...
Herod's reign ended in terror. When the king fell ill, two popular teachers, Judas and Matthias, incited their pupils to remove the golden eagle from the entrance of the Temple: after all, according to the Ten Commandments, it was a sin to make idols. The teachers and the pupils were burned alive. Some Jewish scholars had discovered that seventy-six generations had passed since the Creation, and there was a well-known prophecy that the Messiah was to deliver Israel from its foreign rulers in the seventy-seventh generation (more...). The story about the slaughter of infants of Bethlehem in the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthewis not known from other sources, but it would have been totally in character for the later Herod to commit such an act. A horrible disease (probably a cancer-like affection called Fournier's gangrene) made acute the problem of Herod's succession, and the result was factional strife in his family. Shortly before his death, Herod decided against his sons Ari...
The most important ancient source for the rule of king Herod was written by Flavius Josephus: the Jewish War and the Jewish Antiquities. Both books are based on the history of Nicolaus of Damascus, king Herod's personal secretary. Modern literature: Nikos Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty. Origins, Role in Society and Eclipse (1998 Sheffield) and D.W. Roller, The Building Program of Herod the Great(1998) supplement each other.
Apr 26, 2021 · Herod the Great was the son of a high-ranking official in the Hasmonean dynasty, which was ruling Palestine as an independent kingdom. He was an Idumean or Edomite (a descendant of Esau), but there had been intermarriage between Jews and Edomites, and Herod publicly identified himself as a Jew, although he was not faithful to observe Jewish Law.
Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40 B.C. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in the government at Rome. His kingdom comprised Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea, Batanea, and Peraea, which was approximately the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon.
Herod grew up in Rome where he was given a full Roman education and formed friendships with children of the Caesar, establishing great connections that would serve him later. He had a magnetic personality and was a genius in many ways. However, he also exhibited signs of mental illness and schizophrenia.
Dec 06, 2020 · Herod the Great, founder of the dynasty, tried to kill the infant Jesus by the “slaughter of the innocents” at Bethlehem. 2. Herod Philip, uncle and first husband of Herodias, was not a ruler. 3.