The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution. The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa.
On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476.
The precise term Sacrum Romanum Imperium dates only from 1254, though the term Holy Empire reaches back to 1157, and the term Roman Empire was used from 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II ’s rule. The term “Roman emperor” is older, dating from Otto II (died 983).
Holy Roman Emperor was the title that was given to the ruler of a loose group of places in mostly central Europe called the Holy Roman Empire. The title of "emperor" was passed from the Romans to the Frankish kingdom when, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II.
Maximilian had also been the Holy Roman emperor, a seat to which one was elected. Charles V won the electoral votes necessary to secure his own claim to the empire by, among other things, touting his descent from Maximilian. Read more below: Early life
- Aoe2 DE Campaign Achievements: Furor Teutonicus [Barbarossa 1. Holy Roman Emperor]youtube.com
- Holy Roman Emperor/ Shell Garlandvimeo.com
- The Holy Roman Emperor Takes No Prisoners - Total War Medieval Kingdoms 1212ADyoutube.com
- AoE2: DE Campaigns | Barbarossa | 1. Holy Roman Emperoryoutube.com
By 1519 the Holy Roman Empire was already an ancient institution, in existence since 800 A.D. when Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the Pope.
Francis I (German: Franz Stefan, French: François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife Maria Theresa effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Francis II (German: Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.