In the case of

**streptomycin**, introduced in 1944 for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB; “The Great White Plague”), mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to therapeutic concentrations of the antibiotic were found to arise during patient treatment. As other antibiotics have been discovered and introduced into clinical practice ...This measure of the optimization level was dubbed the minimization percentage (100, 101); more precisely, MP = (ϕ mean − ϕ stand)/(ϕ mean − ϕ min), where ϕ mean is the mean

**cost**of random codes, ϕ stand is the**cost**of the standard code, ϕ min is the**cost**of the most optimal code [all values are calculated given a particular**cost**...