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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hulagu_KhanHulagu Khan - Wikipedia

    Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan's sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Keraite princess and a niece of Toghrul in 1215. Nothing much is known of Hulagu's childhood except of an anecdote given in Jami' al-Tawarikh and he once met his grandfather Genghis Khan with Kublai in 1224.

    • Military Campaigns
    • Battle of Baghdad
    • Conquest of Syria
    • Later Campaigns
    • The Polos
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • References

    Hulagu's brother Mongke had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. In 1255, Mongke charged his brother Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; the destruction of the Hashshashin sect; the submission or destruction of the Abbasid caliphate based in Baghdad; the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria, based in Damascus; and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri MamlukSultanate of Egypt. Mongke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions. Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled—by order of Mongke, two in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army. He easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also know...

    The Mongol army, led by Hulagu Khan and his top general Guo Kan, set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of God if they attacked the caliph. Hulagu's forces then besieged the city, which surrendered on February 10, 1258, leading to a week-long massacre by the Mongols, regarded as one of the most devastating events in the history of Islam.A surviving member of the Abbasid dynasty, Al-Mustansir fled to Egypt where the Mamluk sultan gave him refuge, where his heirs continued to claim the title caliph until the Ottoman conquest of 1517, although they did not exercise any political power.

    After Baghdad, in 1260, Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, such as the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I, and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch. This force then conquered Muslim Syria, domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. They took together the city of Aleppo, and on March 1, 1260, under the Christian general Kitbuqa, they also took Damascus.(Grousset 1981, 581). "On 1 March Kitbuqa entered Damascus at the head of a Mongol army. With him were the King of Armenia and the Prince of Antioch. The citizens of the ancient capital of the Caliphate saw for the first time for six centuries three Christian potentates ride in triumph through their streets," (Runciman 1999, 307). A Christian Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads (the former cathedral of Saint John the Baptist), (Richard 1996, 423) and numerous mosques were profaned. Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers (Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa) entering...

    Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with his brother Kublai Khan established as Great Khan. But when Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ain Jalut, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu's territories, led by Nogai Khan. Hulagu suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.

    Niccolò and Maffeo Polo reportedly traveled to the realm of Hulagu and stayed in the city of Bukhara, in modern day Uzbekistan, where the family lived and traded for three years from 1261 to 1264. Nicolò and Maffeo then joined up with an embassy sent by Hulagu to his brother, the Great Khan Kublai. In 1266, the Polos reached the seat of the Great Khan in the Mongol capital Khanbaliq, present day Beijing, China. They reportedly remained there many years, until in 1291 sent on a mission by Kublai to escort a 17-year-old princess bride, Kököchin, to Arghun Khan, Hulagu's grandson.

    Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Kaboudi Island in Lake Urmia. His funeral was the only Ilkhanid funeral to feature human sacrifice (Morgan 1986, 139). He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line.

    Hulagu Khan laid the foundations of the Ilkhanate State, and by doing so paved the way for the later Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests also opened Iran to both Europe influence from the west and Chineseinfluence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. The Polos set out along the Silk Road during his rule; their journey substantially contributed to East-West cultural exchange. The dynasty unified much of Iran following several-hundred years of political fragmentation. Adopting Islam, they oversaw what has been described as a Renaissance in Iran. Oscillatting between Sunni and Shi'a Islam the latter would become the state religion after the beginning of the Safavid dynasty. Although the Khanate disintegrated, it brought stability to the region for about a century. Their rule is usually dated from 1256 to 1353. Under Hulagu's dynasty, Iranian histor...

    Arberry, A.J., and John Andrew Boyle. 2007. The Saljuq and Mongol periods. The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. 5. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521069366.
    Atwood, Christopher Pratt. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol empire. New York, NY: Facts On File. ISBN 9780816046713.
    Delcourt, Thierry. 2007. Les croisades: la plus grande aventure du moyen âge. Paris, FR: Nouveau monde. ISBN 9782847362596.
    Grousset, René. 1981. La reine Mélisende, la deuxième croisade et Beaudouin III: 1143 - 1163. Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem / René Grousset, T. 4. Paris, FR: Tallander. IS...
  2. Dec 15, 2004 · HULĀGU KHAN. HULĀGU (Hülegü) KHAN, fifth son of Tolui (and thus grandson of Čengiz Khan) and Sorqoqtani Ḵā-tun, and founder of the Il-khanid dynasty (b. ca. 611/1215, d. 19 Rabiʿ II 663/8 February 1265). His name is derived from the Mongolian word for “surplus” (see Pelliot, II, pp. 866-67) and was written in the Muslim sources in ...

    • Background
    • Military Campaigns
    • Siege of Baghdad
    • Conquest of Syria
    • Later Campaigns
    • Death
    • References
    • External Links

    Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan's sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Kerait princess. Sorghaghtani successfully navigated Mongol politics, arranging for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders. She was a Nestorian Christian, and Hulagu was friendly to Christianity. Hulagu's favorite wife, Dokuz Khatun, was also a Christian, as was his closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. It is recorded however that he was a Buddhistas he neared his death, against the will of Dokuz Khatun. Hulagu had at least three children: Abaqa, Teguder Ahmad, and Taraqai. Abaqa was second Ilkhan of Persia from 1265–1282, Teguder Ahmad was third Ilkhan from 1282–1284, and Taraqai's son Baydu became Ilkhan in 1295. Mirkhond mentions two more children, given as Hyaxemet and Tandon in an early translation; Hyaxemet initially served as governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan, whereas Tandon was given Dyarbekir and Iraq.The order of birth is listed as Abaqa, then Hyaxemet, then Tandon, and then Tegud...

    Hulagu's brother Möngke had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. In 1255, Möngke charged Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs of southern Iran, the destruction of the Hashshashin sect, the submission or destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria based in Damascus, and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.Möngke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions. Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled – by order of Möngke, two tenths of the empire's fighting men were gathered for Hulagu's army. He easily destroyed the Lurs, and the Assassins (the Hashshashin) surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamutwitho...

    Hulagu's Mongol army set out for Baghdad in November 1257. Once near the city he divided the forces to threaten both sides of the city, on both the east and west banks of the Tigris. Hulagu demanded surrender but the caliph, Al-Musta'sim, refused. The caliph's army repulsed some of the forces attacking from the west but were defeated in the next battle. The attacking Mongols broke dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliph's army, trapping them. Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned. The Mongols under Chinese general Guo Kan laid siege to the city on January 29, 1258,constructing a palisade and a ditch and wheeling up siege engines and catapults. The battle was short by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall. The caliph tried to negotiate but was refused. On February 10 Baghdad surrendered. The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and began a week of destruction. The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historic...

    In 1260 Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, including the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch. This force conquered Muslim Syria, a domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. They took the city of Aleppo and, under the Christian general Kitbuqa, also took Damascus on March 1, 1260 . A Christian Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads and numerous mosques were profaned. Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers (Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa) entering the city of Damascus together in triumph,though some modern historians such as David Morgan have questioned this story as apocryphal. The invasion effectively destroyed the Ayyubid Dynasty, theretofore powerful ruler of large parts of the Levant, Egypt, and Arabia. The last Ayyubid king An-Nasir Yusuf was killed by Hulagu in 1260.With the Islamic power center of Baghdad gone and Damascus weakened, the center of Islamic power trans...

    Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with his brother Kublai Khan established as Great Khan. But when Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ain Jalut, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu's territories, led by Nogai Khan. Hulagu suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.

    Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Shahi Island in Lake Urmia. His funeral was the only Ilkhanate funeral to feature human sacrifice. He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line.

    Boyle, J.A., (Editor). The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Cambridge University Press; Reissue edition (January 1, 1968). ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Perhaps the best ov...
    Encyclopædia Iranica' has scholar-reviewed articles on a wide range of Persian subjects, including Hulagu.
    Morgan, David. The Mongols. Blackwell Publishers; Reprint edition, April 1990. ISBN 0-631-17563-6. Best for an overview of the wider context of medieval Mongol history and culture.
    Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.
    An Osama bin Laden tape in which Osama bin Laden compares Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of State Colin Powellto Hulagu and his attack on Baghdad. Dated November 12, 2002.
  3. Apr 13, 2019 · Hulagu Khan Bringing Down Baghdad. Hulagu Khan ruled there for a while and then decided to head towards Baghdad, the capital of Islam, thereby traumatizing the Muslim world. He accused Baghdad’s caliph Al-musta’sim of not providing soldiers in the campaign against the Assasins and ordered him to throw open the city gates.

  4. May 23, 2018 · Hulagu Khan. Hulagu Khan (ca. 1216-1265) was a Mongol conqueror and the founder of the dynasty of the Il-Khans of Iran. He also suppressed the Ismaili sect and defeated the last Abbasid caliph. Hulagu—the native form of his name is Hüle'ü, whence the Alau of Marco Polo —was a grandson of Genghis Khan and the younger brother of the Great ...

  5. Hulagu Khan. Hulagu Khan (ca. 1216-1265) was a Mongol conqueror and the founder of the dynasty of the Il-Khans of Iran. He also suppressed the Ismaili sect and defeated the last Abbasid caliph. Hulagu—the native form of his name is Hüle'ü, whence the Alau of Marco Polo—was a grandson of Genghis Khan and the younger brother of the Great ...

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