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    • Life and Works
    • Kant’s Project in The Critique of Pure Reason
    • Transcendental Idealism
    • The Transcendental Deduction
    • Morality and Freedom
    • The Highest Good and Practical Postulates
    • The Unity of Nature and Freedom

    Immanuel Kant was born April 22, 1724 in Königsberg, near thesoutheastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Today Königsberg has beenrenamed Kaliningrad and is part of Russia. But during Kant’s lifetimeKönigsberg was the capital of East Prussia, and its dominantlanguage was German. Though geographically remote from the rest ofPrussia and other German cities...

    The main topic of the Critique of Pure Reason is the possibility ofmetaphysics, understood in a specific way. Kant defines metaphysics interms of “the cognitions after which reason might striveindependently of all experience,” and his goal in the book is toreach a “decision about the possibility or impossibility of ametaphysics in general, and the ...

    Perhaps the central and most controversial thesis of the Critique ofPure Reason is that human beings experience only appearances, notthings in themselves; and that space and time are only subjective formsof human intuition that would not subsist in themselves if one were toabstract from all subjective conditions of human intuition. Kant callsthis t...

    The transcendental deduction is the central argument of the Critiqueof Pure Reason and one of the most complex and difficult texts in thehistory of philosophy. Given its complexity, there are naturally manydifferent ways of interpreting the deduction.[14]This briefoverview provides one perspective on some of its main ideas. The transcendental deduc...

    Having examined two central parts of Kant’s positive project intheoretical philosophy from the Critique of Pure Reason, transcendentalidealism and the transcendental deduction, let us now turn to hispractical philosophy in the Critique of Practical Reason. Since Kant’sphilosophy is deeply systematic, this section begins with a preliminarylook at ho...

    Kant holds that reason unavoidably produces not only consciousnessof the moral law but also the idea of a world in which there is bothcomplete virtue and complete happiness, which he calls the highestgood. Our duty to promote the highest good, on Kant’s view, is the sumof all moral duties, and we can fulfill this duty only if we believethat the hig...

    This final section briefly discusses how Kant attempts to unify thetheoretical and practical parts of his philosophical system in theCritique of the Power of Judgment.

  1. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia (since 1946 the Russian city of Kaliningrad ). His mother, Anna Regina Reuter [45] (1697–1737), was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. [citation needed] Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter.

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    Towards the end of his most influential work, Critique of Pure Reason(1781/1787), Kant argues that all philosophy ultimately aims at answering these three questions: What can I know? What should I do? What may I hope? The book appeared at the beginning of the most productive period of his career, and by the end of his life Kant had worked out syste...

    This article presents an overview of these and other of Kants most important philosophical contributions. It follows standard procedures for citing Kants works. Passages from Critique of Pure Reason are cited by reference to page numbers in both the 1781 and 1787 editions. Thus (A805/B833) refers to page 805 in the 1781 edition and 833 in the 1787 ...

    Kant was born in 1724 in the Prussian city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad in Russia). His parents Johann Georg and Anna Regina were pietists. Although they raised Kant in this tradition (an austere offshoot of Lutheranism that emphasized humility and divine grace), he does not appear ever to have been very sympathetic to this kind of religious de...

    His mother had died in 1737, and after his fathers death in 1746 Kant left the University to work as a private tutor for several families in the countryside around the city. He returned to the University in 1754 to teach as a Privatdozent, which meant that he was paid directly by individual students, rather than by the University. He supported hims...

    The 1780s would be the most productive years of Kants career. In addition to writing the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) as a sort of introduction to the Critique, Kant wrote important works in ethics (Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, 1785, and Critique of Practical Reason, 1788), he applied his theoretical philosophy to Newto...

    Although the products of the 1780s are the works for which Kant is best known, he continued to publish philosophical writings through the 1790s as well. Of note during this period are Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason (1793), Towards Perpetual Peace (1795), Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798)...

    This section addresses the development of Kants metaphysics and epistemology and then summarizes the most important arguments and conclusions of Kants theory.

    In the Physical Monadology (1756), Kant attempts to provide a metaphysical account of the basic constitution of material substance in terms of monads. Leibniz and Wolff had held that monads are the simple, atomic substances that constitute matter. Kant follows Wolff in rejecting Leibnizs claim that monads are mindlike and that they do not interact ...

    The final publication of Kants pre-critical period was On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World, also referred to as the Inaugural Dissertation (1770), since it marked Kants appointment as Königsbergs Professor of Logic and Metaphysics. Although Kant had not yet had the final crucial insights that would lead to the deve...

    The most basic type of representation of sensibility is what Kant calls an intuition. An intuition is a representation that refers directly to a singular individual object. There are two types of intuitions. Pure intuitions are a priori representations of space and time themselves (see 2d1 below). Empirical intuitions are a posteriori representatio...

    A quick remark on the term transcendental idealism is in order. Kant typically uses the term transcendental when he wants to emphasize that something is a condition on the possibility of experience. So for instance, the chapter titled Transcendental Analytic of Concepts deals with the concepts without which cognition of an object would be impossibl...

    One argument has to do with the relation between sensations and space. Kant argues that sensations on their own are not spatial, but that they (or arguably the objects they correspond to) are represented in space, outside and next to one another (A23/B34). Hence, the ability to sense objects in space presupposes the a priori representation of space...

    Another argument that Kant makes repeatedly during the critical period can be called the argument from geometry. Its two premises are, first, that the truths of geometry are necessary truths, and thus a priori truths, and second, that the truths of geometry are synthetic (because these truths cannot be derived from an analysis of the meanings of ge...

    According to two-world interpretations, the distinction between appearances and things in themselves is to be understood in metaphysical and ontological terms. Appearances (and hence the entire physical world that we experience) comprise one set of entities, and things in themselves are an ontologically distinct set of entities. Although things in ...

    After establishing the ideality of space and time and the distinction between appearances and things in themselves, Kant goes on to show how it is possible to have a priori cognition of the necessary features of appearances. Cognizing appearances requires more than mere knowledge of their sensible form (space and time); it also requires that we be ...

    The next three principles are discussed in an important, lengthy chapter called the Analogies of Experience. They derive from the relational categories: substance, causality, and community. According to the First Analogy, experience will always involve objects that must be represented as substances. Substance here is to be understood in terms of an...

    One of the most important upshots of Kants theory of experience is that it is possible to have knowledge of the world because the world as we experience it conforms to the conditions on the possibility of experience. Accordingly, Kant holds that there can be knowledge of an object only if it is possible for that object to be given in an experience....

    • Who Was Immanuel Kant?
    • Early Life
    • Full-Fledged Scholar and Philosopher
    • Later Years and Death

    While tutoring, Immanuel Kant published science papers, including "General Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" in 1755. He spent the next 15 years as a metaphysics lecturer. In 1781, he published the first part of Critique of Pure Reason. He published more critiques in the years preceding his death on February 12, 1804, in the city of his bi...

    Kant was the fourth of nine children born to Johann Georg Cant, a harness maker, and Anna Regina Cant. Later in his life, Immanuel changed the spelling of his name to Kant to to adhere to German spelling practices. Both parents were devout followers of Pietism, an 18th-century branch of the Lutheran Church. Seeing the potential in the young man, a ...

    In 1755, Immanuel Kant returned to the University of Konigsberg to continue his education. That same year he received his doctorate of philosophy. For the next 15 years, he worked as a lecturer and tutor and wrote major works on philosophy. In 1770, he became a full professor at the University of Konigsberg, teaching metaphysics and logic. In 1781,...

    Though the Critique of Pure Reason received little attention at the time, Kant continued to refine his theories in a series of essays that comprised the Critique of Practical Reason and Critique of Judgement. Kant continued to write on philosophy until shortly before his death. In his last years, he became embittered due to his loss of memory. He d...

  2. Immanuel Kant, (born April 22, 1724, Königsberg, Prussia—died Feb. 12, 1804, Königsberg), German philosopher, one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment. The son of a saddler, he studied at the university in Königsberg and taught there as privatdocent (1755–70) and later as professor of logic and metaphysics (1770–97).

  3. Aug 31, 2019 · Kant believed that “the moral law”—the categorical imperative and everything it implies—was something that could only be discovered through reason. It was not something imposed on us from without. Instead, it's a law that we, as rational beings, must impose on ourselves.

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