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Ivan III Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'. Ivan served as the co-ruler and regent for his blind father Vasily II from the mid-1450s before he officially ascended the throne in 1462.
…Russia during the reign of Ivan III the Great (1462–1505), as Tatar pressure lessened and Moscow gradually assumed importance, there was a brief interest in Western cultural developments. Thus, in 1475 Fioravanti, who had been in Hungary earlier, was brought to Moscow.
- Gathering of Russian Lands
- Foreign Policies
- Internal Policies
Ivan’s first enterprise was a war with the republic of Novgorod, which, alarmed at the growing influence of Muscovy, had placed itself beneath the protection of Casimir IV, King of Poland. This alliance was regarded by Moscow as an act of apostasy from Orthodoxy. Although Ivan would have used any excuse to prevent nationalism from being instated, he felt heresy would be the best way to keep his supporters behind him. Ivan marched against Novgorod in 1470. No allies stood up for Novgorod. After Ivan's generals had twice defeated the forces of the republic in the summer of 1471 (by legend, ten fold outnumbered), at the rivers Shelona and Dvina, the Novgorodians were forced to ask for peace, which they obtained by agreeing to abandon forever the Polish alliance, to relinquish a considerable portion of their northern colonies, and to pay a war indemnity of 15,500 roubles. From then on Ivan sought continually for an excuse to destroy Novgorod altogether. Although the republic allowed him...
It was during the reign of Ivan III that Muscovy rejected the rule of the Mongols, known as the Tatar yoke. In 1480 Ivan refused to pay the customary tribute to the Grand Akhmat Khan (Khan Ahmed). However, when the grand khan marched against him, Ivan's courage began to fail, and only the stern exhortations of the high-spirited bishop of Rostov, Vassian Patrikeyev, could induce him to take the field. All through the autumn the Russian and Tatar hosts confronted each other on opposite sides of the Ugra River, until the 11th of November, when Akhmat retired into the steppe. In the following year, the grand khan, while preparing a second expedition against Moscow, was suddenly attacked, routed, and slain by Ivaq, the Khan of the Nogay Horde, whereupon the Golden Horde fell to pieces. In 1487 Ivan reduced the Khanate of Kazan (one of the offshoots of the Horde) to the condition of a vassal state, though in his later years it broke away from his authority. With the other Muslim powers, t...
The character of the government of Muscovy took on an autocratic form under Ivan III which it had never had before. This was due not merely to the natural consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other Russian lands, but even more to the simultaneous growth of new and exotic principles falling upon a soil already prepared for them. After the fall of Constantinople, Orthodox canonists were inclined to regard the Muscovite grand dukes as the successors of the emperors. This movement coincided with a change in the family circumstances of Ivan III. After the death of his first consort, Maria of Tver (1467), Ivan III wedded Sophia Paleologue (also known by her original Greek and Orthodox name of Zoe), daughter of Thomas Palaeologus , despot of Morea, who claimed the throne of Constantinople as the brother of Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor, at the suggestion of Pope Paul II (1469), who hoped thereby to bind Russia to the holy see. The main condition of their union was that t...1911 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica(public domain).von Herberstei, Sigismund. 450 Jahre Sigismund von Herbersteins Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii : 1549-1999. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2002. ISBN 3447046252XPOHOC. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- Gathering of Russian Lands
- Domestic Policy
- Foreign Policy
- Further Reading
His first enterprise was a war with the Republic of Novgorod, which had fought a series of wars (stretching back to at least the reign of Dmitry Donskoi) for two reasons: over Moscow's religious and political sovereignty, and over Moscow's efforts to seize land in the Northern Dvina region. Alarmed at Moscow's growing power, Novgorod had negotiated with Lithuania in the hope of placing itself under the protection of Casimir IV, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Lithuania, a would-be alliance regarded by Moscow as an act of apostasy from orthodoxy. Ivan took the field against Novgorod in 1470, and after his generals had twice defeated the forces of the republic—at the Battle of Shelon River and on the Northern Dvina, both in the summer of 1471—the Novgorodians were forced to sue for peace, agreeing to abandon their overtures to Lithuania and ceding a considerable portion of their northern territories, and paying a war indemnity of 15,500 rouble. Ivan visited Novgorod Central several...
The character of the government of Moscow under Ivan III changed essentially, taking on a new form. This was due not merely to the natural consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other Russian lands, but to new imperial pretensions. After the fall of Constantinople, orthodox canonists were inclined to regard the Grand Princes of Moscow as the successors of the Byzantine emperors. Ivan himself appeared to welcome the idea, and he began to style himself tsar in foreign correspondence. This movement coincided with a change in the family circumstances of Ivan III. After the death of his first consort, Maria of Tver (1467), and at the suggestion of Pope Paul II (1469), who hoped thereby to bind Russia to the Holy See, Ivan III wedded Sophia Paleologue (also known under her original Greek and Orthodox name of Zoe), daughter of Thomas Palaeologus, despot of Morea, who claimed the throne of Constantinople as the brother of Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor. Frustrating the P...
It was in the reign of Ivan III that Muscovy rejected the Tatar yoke. In 1476 Ivan refused to pay the customary tribute to the grand Khan Ahmed. All through the autumn the Muscovy and Tatar hosts confronted each other on opposite sides of the Ugra, till the 11th of November 1480, when Ahmed retired into the steppe.In the following year the Grand Khan, while preparing a second expedition against Moscow, was suddenly attacked, routed and slain by Ivak, the Khan of the Nogay Horde, whereupon the Golden Horde suddenly fell to pieces. In 1487 Ivan reduced the khanate of Kazan, one of the offshoots of the Horde, to the condition of a vassal-state, though in his later years it broke away from his suzerainty. With the other Muslim powers, the Khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sultans of Ottoman Empire, Ivan's relations were peaceful and even amicable. The Crimean Khan, Meñli I Giray, helped him against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and facilitated the opening of diplomatic relations betwee...1462– Becomes Great Prince after his father's death1463– Annexes Yaroslavl1465– Sends an expedition to the Arctic1471 – Invades Novgorod, which becomes a puppet stateJ. L. I. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow(1961)Sergei M. Soloviev, and John J. Windhausen, eds. History of Russia. Vol. 8: Russian Society in the Age of Ivan III(1979)
- Vasily II
- Maria of Tver Sophia Paleologue
- Eastern Orthodox
- Vasily III
Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who was the first to adopt the more pretentious title of "Grand Duke of all the Russias." Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands," he quadrupled the territory of his state ...
Ivan III known as Ivan the Great. 1440--1505, grand duke of Muscovy (1462--1505). He expanded Muscovy, defeated the Tatars (1480), and assumed the title of Ruler of all Russia (1472)
- Early years
- Later years
Ivan III (1440-1505), called Ivan the Great, was grand duke of Moscow from 1462 to 1505. He completed the unification of Russian lands, and his reign marks the beginning of Muscovite Russia.
Born on Jan. 22, 1440, in Moscow, Ivan was the oldest son of Basil II. He was married when he was 12 years old to Princess Maria of Tver. When Basil died in 1462, the 22-year-old Ivan became the grand duke of Moscow without being confirmed by the Mongol Khan. Ivan limited his allegiance to the Golden Horde to the sending of presents instead of regular tribute, finally discontinuing even those. Several Mongol attempts to subjugate the Russians failed, the last one in 1480.
The accomplishment for which Ivan is best known is the consolidation of Muscovite rule. His predecessors had increased Moscow's territory from less than 600 square miles under Ivan II to more than 15,000 square miles at the end of Basil II's reign. It remained for Ivan III to absorb Moscow's old rivals, Novgorod and Tver, and establish virtually a single rule over what had been appanage Russia. Although the circumstances surrounding the acquisitions varied, the results were basically the same: former sovereign or semiautonomous principalities were reduced to the status of provinces of Moscow, while their princes joined the ranks of the service nobility.
Ivan also considered himself the rightful heir to all the former Kievan lands, which in his opinion constituted his lawful patrimony. This presented a challenge to Lithuania, which, following the collapse of Kiev, had expanded into the western and southwestern Russian territories. Thus, much of Ivan's reign was occupied in war against Lithuania. A peace treaty was signed in 1503 by which Lithuania recognized Russian control over parts of the Smolensk and the Polotsk areas and much of Chernigov-Seversk. Another peace treaty of 1503 ended the war which Moscow had effectively waged against the Livonian Order.
After the death of his first wife, Ivan married Sophia, or Zoë, Paleologue, a Byzantine princess and niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI. The marriage was sponsored by the Vatican in hope of bringing Russia under the sway of the Pope and of establishing a broad front against the Turks, a goal that failed. From Ivan's point of view, the marriage fitted well into the general trend of elevating the Muscovite ruler.
Following the marriage, Ivan developed a complicated court ceremonial on the Byzantine model and began to use the title of czar and autocrat. Also during the reign of Ivan and his son, Basil III, Moscow came to be referred to by spokesmen as the Third Rome. Philotheos, a monk from Pskov, developed the idea that Moscow was the true successor to Byzantium and, hence, to Rome.
An impressive building program in Moscow took place under Ivan, directed primarily by Italian artists and craftsmen. New buildings were erected in the Kremlin, and the Kremlin walls were strengthened and furnished with towers and gates. Ivan died on Oct. 27, 1505, and was succeeded by his son, Basil.
The only biography in English of Ivan is J. L. I. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow (1961). A good discussion of the Third Rome concept is Nicholas Zernov, Moscow: The Third Rome (1937). A firsthand account of the 1486-1506 period is Baron Sigismund von Herberstein, Notes upon Russia, translated and edited by R. H. Major (2 vols., 1851-1852). The most thorough study of this period available to the English reader is George Vernadsky and Michael Karpovich, A History of Russia, vol. 4 (1959).
In Russia, Ivan III gave land away as a reward for military service. These new landholders hired people to work their lands, and in 1497 Ivan III accommodated the landowners by limiting the rights of agricultural workers.
Oct 22, 2019 · Ivan lived to be twenty-three years old, surviving Elizabeth and her nephew-heir Peter III — Catherine the Great’s husband. Ivan VI is the prisoner Catherine II encounters in the first scene ...
Ivan was born on 23 August 1740 at Saint Petersburg, the eldest child of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his wife, Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the only niece of the childless Empress Anna of Russia, and the only granddaughter of Tsar Ivan V.