Jerusalem (/ dʒ ə ˈ r uː s əl ə m /; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds or Bayt al-Maqdis, also spelled Baitul Muqaddas) is a city in Western Asia, on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Christians consider Jerusalem holy because many events in the life of Jesus took place there. Muslims believe that Muhammad rose to heaven from Jerusalem, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque is the first Qibla of Muslims after Mecca. Jerusalem is the capital city of both Israel and Palestine, under their laws. Most other countries disagree.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been attacked 52 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice. The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making Jerusalem one of the oldest cities in the world.
- Composition history
- Verdi in Paris, July 1847 to July 1849
- Performance history
Jérusalem is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was to be an adaptation and partial translation of the composer's original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata. It was the one opera which he regarded as the most suitable for being translated into French and, taking Eugène Scribe's advice, Verdi agreed that a French libretto was to be prepared by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz, who had written the libretto for Donizetti's most successful French opera...
The director of the Paris Opéra, Léon Pillet, had invited Verdi to compose an opera for the company in November 1845 and February 1846, but initially Verdi declined. This was the composer's first encounter with the Académie Royale de Musique, as the Paris Opéra was officially known. Among 19th-century Italian composers, there had been an increasing interest in writing for Paris, where the combination of money, prestige, and flexibility of style were appealing. Musicologist Julian Budden ...
During this period in Paris, Verdi was to work on and complete the score for Jérusalem. From Paris, he fulfilled the obligation to write the opera Il corsaro from a libretto by Francesco Maria Piave which took place in Trieste in October 1848. Also, he worked with Salvadore Cammarano on two librettos, one for La battaglia di Legnano, the other being Luisa Miller which was presented in Naples in December 1849 after Verdi's return to Italy. Many writers, including Baldini and Frank Walker ...
19th century Given by the Opéra at the Salle Le Peletier, the premiere of the opera took place on 26 November 1847, but even while writing the French version and before its premiere, Verdi had contacted his publisher, Giovanni Ricordi, regarding an Italian version. He did not find a translator while in Paris, but in 1850, the French text was translated into Italian by Calisto Bassi and performed as Gerusalemme at La Scala, Milan on 26 December 1850. However, "it failed to supersede I ...
Scene 1: The palace of the Count of Toulouse Late at night Hélène is with her lover, Gaston. His family and hers have long been in conflict, but on the following day and prior to Gaston's departure for the First Crusade, it has been agreed that there will be a solemn ...
Scene 1: A cave near Ramla in Palestine Remorseful, Roger has been wandering for years in the desert and he cries out for forgiveness.. Unexpectedly, Raymond, Gaston's squire, appears in a state of exhaustion and he begs Roger, whom he believes to be a holy man, for help, telling
Scene 1: The harem gardens Hélène is surrounded by the ladies of the harem who express some sympathy with her plight. But, when the Emir enters and is told that the Christians are close to attacking the city, he orders that if the invaders are successful, Hélène's head ...
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Jerusalem (hebräisch ירושלים? / i Jeruschalajim [jeʁuʃa'lajim]; arabisch أورشليم القدس, DMG Ūršalīm al-Quds ‚Jerusalem das Heiligtum‘, bekannter unter der Kurzform القدس, DMG al-Quds ‚das Heiligtum‘; altgriechisch Ἱεροσόλυμα Hierosólyma [n. pl.], oder Ἰερουσαλήμ Ierousalḗm [f., indecl.]; lateinisch Hierosolyma [n. pl. oder f. sg ...
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (Arabic: القدس الشرقية , al-Quds al-Sharqit; Hebrew: מִזְרַח יְרוּשָׁלַיִם , Mizraḥ Yerushalayim) is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was occupied by Israel.
In May 2021, clashes occurred between Palestinian protestors and Israeli police over a planned Israeli Supreme Court decision regarding evictions of Palestinians in Sheikh Jarrah, East Jerusalem. The clashes, which coincided with the holidays of Laylat al-Qadr and Jerusalem Day, resulted in over 300 people being injured, most of them Palestinian. The attacks drew international condemnation and resulted in a delay of the decision by 30 days. On 9 May, Israeli forces stormed the Al-Aqsa Mosque, a
The Supreme Court of Israel was expected to deliver a ruling on whether to uphold the eviction of six Palestinian families from the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood of East Jerusalem on 10 May 2021. Claims to Sheikh Jarrah have been a contentious issue for centuries. Two Jewish trusts bought a section of Sheikh Jarrah from Arab landowners in 1876. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jordan captured the area. Jordan, with the support of the United Nations, built 28 homes for Palestinian refugees ...
Palestinians and Israeli settlers first clashed on 6 May, and were broken up by the intervention of the Israeli police who arrested at least 7 people. Further clashes followed at the Al-Aqsa mosque. The Palestine Red Crescent Society said that 136 people were wounded across Jerusalem that evening, with the Israeli government stating six police officers were also wounded. More clashes occurred on 8 May, the date of the Islamic holy night of Laylat al-Qadr. Palestinian crowds threw stones, lit fir
On 9 May 2021, the Israeli Supreme Court delayed the expected decision on evictions for 30 days, after an intervention from the Attorney-General, Avichai Mandelblit. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu defended the actions of the Israeli police and said that Israel "shall n
European Union – The European Union called on both sides to de-escalate tensions and reiterated "violence and incitement are unacceptable and the perpetrators on all sides must be held accountable". United Nations – The UN called on Israel to cancel any planned evictions ...
- Geographic boundaries
- Life in the early kingdom
The Kingdom of Jerusalem, also known as the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, was a Crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when its last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. Its history is divided into two distinct periods. Kingdom of Jerusalem Regnum Hierosolymitanum Roiaume de Jherusalem 1099–1291 Royal banner Coat of arms The Kingdom of...
At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the First Crusade, but at its height in the mid-12th century, the kingdom encompassed roughly the territory of modern-day Israel, Palestine and the southern parts of Lebanon. From the Mediterranean Sea, the kingdom extended in a thin strip of land from Beirut in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south; into modern Jordan and Syria in the east, and towards Fatimid Egypt in the west. Three other cru
The kingdom was ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. They imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, and there were close familial and political connections with the West throughout the kingdom's existence. The kingdom also inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were
The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks. However, the main objective quickly became the control of the Holy Land. The Byzantines were frequently a
During Baldwin I's reign, the kingdom expanded even further. The number of European inhabitants increased, as the minor crusade of 1101 brought reinforcements to the kingdom. Baldwin repopulated Jerusalem with Franks and native Christians, after his expedition across the Jordan i
Fulk was an experienced crusader and had brought military support to the kingdom during a pilgrimage in 1120. He brought Jerusalem into the sphere of the Angevin Empire, as the father of Geoffrey V of Anjou and grandfather of the future Henry II of England. Not everyone appreciat
The Latin population of the kingdom was always small; although a steady stream of settlers and new crusaders continually arrived, most of the original crusaders who fought in the First Crusade simply went home. According to William of Tyre, "barely three hundred knights and two thousand foot soldiers could be found" in the kingdom in 1100 during Godfrey's siege of Arsuf. From the very beginning, the Latins were little more than a colonial frontier exercising rule over the native Jewish, Samarita
After the loss of all territory in the Levant in 1291, there were late attempts at further crusades, nominally proposing to recapture Jerusalem, but with the rise of the Ottoman Empire their character was more and more that of a desperate defensive war rarely reaching beyond the Balkans. Henry IV of England made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1393/4, and he later vowed to lead a crusade to recapture the city, but he did not undertake such a campaign before his death in 1413. The Levant remained un
- Historical background
- Support and opposition
- Ethiopian Jews' Memorial Day
Jerusalem Day is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War. The day is officially marked by state ceremonies and memorial services. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel declared Jerusalem Day a minor religious holiday to mark the regaining of access to the Western Wall.
Under the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which proposed the establishment of two states in British Mandatory Palestine – a Jewish state and an Arab state – Jerusalem was to be an international city, neither exclusively Arab nor Jewish for a period of ten years, at which point a referendum would be held by Jerusalem residents to determine which country to join. The Jewish leadership accepted the plan, including the internationalization of Jerusalem, but the Arabs ...
On 12 May 1968, the government proclaimed a new holiday – Jerusalem Day – to be celebrated on the 28th of Iyar, the Hebrew date on which the divided city of Jerusalem became one. On 23 March 1998, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Day Law, making the day a national holiday. One of the themes of Jerusalem Day, based on a verse from the Psalms, is "Built-up Jerusalem is like a city that was joined together". In 1977, the government advanced the date of Jerusalem Day by a week to avoid it ...
While the day is not widely celebrated outside Israel, and has lost its significance for most secular Israelis, the day is still very much celebrated by Israel's Religious Zionist community with parades and additional prayers in the synagogue.
On Jerusalem Day, the Jerusalem Convention was signed, declaring the State of Israel's loyalty to the city. On Yom Yerushalayim 5755 at the Ammunition Hill ceremony, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, the chief of staff in the Six-Day War, expressed his allegiance to a unified Jerusalem, in a statement that came in response to the Right's claims that the Oslo plan would divide Jerusalem and build Highway 1 The seam line and between East and West Jerusalem, is in effect a declaration of the government
A ceremony is held on Yom Yerushalayim to commemorate the Ethiopian Jews who perished on their way to Eretz Israel. In 2004, the Israeli government decided to turn this ceremony into a state ceremony held at the memorial site for Ethiopian Jews who perished on their way to Israel on Mount Herzl.
- Sunset, 21 May –, nightfall, 22 May
- State of Israel
- 28 Iyar
- Iyar 28 (Hebrew calendar)
- related to: Jerusalem wikipedia
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