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  1. King of France. Philip VI, John's father, died on 22 August 1350, and John's coronation as John II, king of France, took place in Reims the following 26 September. Joanna, his second wife, was crowned queen of France at the same time.

    • Early Life
    • Marriage with Bonne of Bohemia
    • Duke of Normandy
    • Treaty of Mantes
    • Prisoner of The English
    • Personality
    • Legacy
    • Family and Children
    • References

    John’s father Philip VI took the throne of France in 1328, when John was still 9 years old. His succession had rested on a deliberate political choice resulting from the deaths of Louis X in 1316 and Charles IV in 1328 – preventing the crown from passing to women, and thus to Edward III of England, son of Isabelle of France and grandson of Philip the Fair. Edward, however, claimed the throne and launched the Hundred Years' War. The new king was therefore determined to assert the legitimacy of his dynasty. In 1332, the birth of Charles II of Navarre presented what was claimed to be a better claim to the crown of France than that of Edward. Charles II of Navarre was son of Joan II of Navarre and grandson of Louis X. Philip decided to marry off his son—then thirteen years old—quickly to form a strong matrimonial alliance, at the same time conferring upon him the title of Duke of Normandy. Thought was initially given to a marriage with Eleanor, sister of the King of England, but instead...

    John came of age on April 26, 1332, and received overlordship of the duchy of Normandy, as well as the counties of Anjou and Maine. The wedding was celebrated on July 28, at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a further two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. Duke John of Normandy was solemnly granted the arms of a knight in front of a prestigious assistance bringing together the kings of Luxembourg and Navarre, and the dukes of Burgundy, Lorraine and the Brabant.

    In 1332, John became Duke of Normandy in prerogative, and had to deal with the reality that most of the Norman nobility was already allied with the English camp. Effectively, Normandy depended economically more on maritime trade across the English Channel than it did by river trade on the Seine. The duchy had not been English for 150 years but many landowners had possessions across the Channel. Consequently, to line up behind one or other sovereign risked confiscation. Therefore the Norman nobility were governed as interdependent clans which allowed them to obtain and maintain charters guaranteeing the duchy a deal of autonomy. It was split into two key camps, the counts of Tancarville and the counts of Harcourt—which had been at conflict for generations. Tension arose again in 1341. The king, worried about the richest area of the kingdom breaking into bloodshed, ordered the bailiffs of Bayeux and Cotentin to quell the dispute. Geoffroy d' Harcourt raised troops against the king, ra...

    In 1354, John's son-in-law and cousin, Charles II of Navarre, who, in addition to his small Pyrenean kingdom, also held extensive lands in Normandy, was implicated in the assassination of the Constable of France, Charles de la Cerda. Nevertheless, in order to have a strategic ally against the English in Gascony, on February 22, 1354, John signed the Treaty of Mantes with Charles. The peace did not last between the two and Charles eventually struck up an alliance with Henry of Grosmont, the first Duke of Lancaster. The next year (1355), John signed the Treaty of Valognes with Charles, but this second peace lasted hardly longer than the first. In 1355, the Hundred Years' Warflared up again. In the Battle of Poitiers (1356) against Edward, the Black Prince, (son of King Edward III of England), John suffered a humiliating defeat and was taken as captive back to England. While negotiating a peace accord, he was at first held in the Savoy Palace, then at a variety of locations, including...

    As a prisoner of the English, John was granted royal privileges, permitting him to travel about and to enjoy a regal lifestyle. At a time when law and order was breaking down in France and the government was having a hard time raising money for the defense of the realm, his account books during his captivity show that he was purchasing horses, pets, and clothes while maintaining an astrologerand a court band. The Treaty of Brétigny (1360) set his ransom at 3,000,000 crowns. Leaving his son Louis of Anjou in English-held Calais as a replacement hostage, John was allowed to return to France to raise the funds. While King John tried to raise the money, his son Louis, accorded the same royal dignity, easily escaped from the English. However, John had agreed liberal concessions to Edward's territorial claims in France, although Edward was also to relinquish his claim to the throne. In October, 1363, the Estates General refused to ratify the treaty. An angry King John then surrendered him...

    John suffered from fragile health. He engaged little in physical activity, practiced jousting rarely, and only occasionally hunted. Contemporaries report that he was quick to get angry and resort to violence, leading to frequent political and diplomatic confrontations. He enjoyed literature, and was patron to painters and musicians. His mother, who had frequently acted as regent while his father was fighting the war against England, had patronized learning especially translations from Latin into French. He took a wife Bonne of Bohemia, and fathered 10 children, in eleven years. Some historians also suggest a strong romantic attachment to Charles de la Cerda. La Cerda was given various honors and appointed to the high position of connetable when John became king; he accompanied the king on all his official journeys to the provinces. La Cerda's rise at court excited the jealousy of the French barons, several of whom stabbed him to death in 1354. As such, La Cerda's fate paralleled tha...

    Despite his ill-health and disinterest in jousting, John has been depicted as image of a "warrior king." This probably emerged from the courage in battle he showed at Poitiers, and the creation of the Order of the Star. This was guided by political need as John was determined to prove the legitimacy of his crown—particularly as his reign, like that of his father, was marked by continuing disputes over the Valois claim from both Charles of Navarre and Edward III. From a young age, John was called to resist the de-centralizing forces which impacted upon the cities and the nobility; each attracted either by English economic influence or the reforming parties. These either wanted greater participation in governance by the elite or by the middle classes. John tended to delegate power to heads of departments, who were usually "men of modest social origins." His mother had privileged people from Burgundy at court at the expense of the pro-English North West, which created resentment. John...

    On July 28, 1332, at the age of 13, John was married to Bonne of Bohemia (d. 1349), daughter of John I (the Blind) of Bohemia. Their children were: 1. Charles V(January 21, 1338–September 16, 1380) 2. Louis I, Duke of Anjou (July 23, 1339–September 20, 1384) 3. John, Duke of Berry (November 30, 1340–June 15, 1416) 4. Philippe II, Duke of Burgundy (January 17, 1342–April 27, 1404) 5. Jeanne (June 24, 1343–November 3, 1373), married Charles II (the Bad) of Navarre 6. Marie (September 12, 1344–October 1404), married Robert I, Duke of Bar 7. Agnès (1345–1349) 8. Marguerite (1347–1352) 9. Isabelle of Valois (October 1, 1348–September 11, 1372), married Gian Galeazzo I, Duke of Milan On February 19, 1349 (old style), at Nanterre, he married Joanna I of Auvergne (d. 1361), Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne. She was widow of Philip of Burgundy, the deceased heir of that duchy, and mother of the young Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (1344-61) who became John's stepson and ward. John and Joanna ha...

    Autrand, Françoise. 1994. Charles V: le Sage. Paris, FR: Fayard. ISBN 9782213027692.
    Deviosse, Jean. 1985. Jean le Bon. Paris, FR: Fayard. ISBN 9782213015583.
    Keen, Maurice. 1969. The Pelican History of Medieval Europe.Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books.
    Knecht, R.J. 2004. The Valois: Kings of France, 1328-1589. London, UK: Hambledon and London. ISBN 9781852854201.
  2. John II, byname John the Good, French Jean le Bon, (born April 16, 1319, near Le Mans, Fr.—died April 8, 1364, London), king of France from 1350 to 1364. Captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers on Sept. 19, 1356, he was forced to sign the disastrous treaties of 1360 during the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) between France and England .

  3. John II of France. French Monarch. Jean le Bon. Born the son of Philippe VI and Jeanne of Burgundy. At thirteen, he married Bonne of Luxemburg, with whom he eventually had nine children. Bonne died one year before his ascension to the throne in 1350 and he married Joanna, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne. The early part of his reign was marred ...

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  4. John II (French: Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was King of France from 1350 until his death.. When John II came to power, France was facing several disasters: the Black Death, which killed nearly half of its population; popular revolts known as Jacqueries; free companies (Grandes Compagnies) of routiers who plundered the country; and ...

  5. John II of France. John II of France was a politician born in 1319 in Le Mans, which is now part of modern day Le Mans, France. John II of France died at 45 years old in NaN. Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of John II of France has received more than 1,023,056 page views.

  6. John II (French: Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was King of France from 1350 until his death in 1364. When he came to power, France faced several disasters: the Black Death, which killed nearly half of its population; popular revolts known as Jacqueries; free companies (Grandes Compagnies) of routiers who plundered the country; and English ...

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