Born in the Free imperial city of Regensburg, Upper Palatinate, John of Austria was the product of a brief liaison between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (a widower since 1539) and Barbara Blomberg, a burgher's daughter and singer. In the summer of 1554, the boy was taken to the castle of Luis de Quijada in Villagarcía de Campos, Valladolid.
John of Austria John of Austria (1547-1578), the illegitimate half-brother of King Philip II of Spain, distinguished himself as a military commander, notably at the Battle of Lepanto. The most powerful man in Western Europe in the first half of the 16th century was the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
Philip's sister, Margaret of Austria, aged 18, married John on April 3 the following year in Burgos Cathedral. It was a good marriage and John was devoted to Margaret. All of Isabella's children had a passionate nature, and although it was a political alliance, it was a deep love match.
May 14, 2018 · John of Austria John of Austria (1547-1578), the illegitimate half-brother of King Philip II of Spain, distinguished himself as a military commander, notably at the Battle of Lepanto. The most powerful man in Western Europe in the first half of the 16th century was the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
- Childhood and Youth
- Women and Children
- Mediterranean Naval Command
- The Don Carlos Affair
- Morisco Revolt in Granada
- The War of Cyprus and Battle of Lepanto
- The Mediterranean After Lepanto
- Governor Generalship of The Low Countries
- in Literature
Born in the Free imperial city of Regensburg, Upper Palatinate, he was the progeny of a liaison between Emperor Charles V and Barbara Blomberg, a burgher's daughter and singer. Barbara was promptly married to Hieronymus Kegel, a court functionary in Brussels, and her child became known as Jeromín. Before he turned the age of three, Jeromín was taken from his mother and put in the care of an old friend of Charles, Adrien de Bois who, in counsel with his wife, Magdalen de Ulloa, placed the child as theirs, under a Flemish court musician, Franz Massy and his Spanish wife, Ana de Medina. Given money for their travel and his keep, they took him to Spain and settled in 1550 at Leganés, her village just outside Madrid, where Jeromín learned Spanish and played with village boys, starting basic school with the priest at nearby Getafe. When Jeromín turned seven, by order of the Emperor, a courtier took him from his now-widowed foster mother to the castle of Charles' majordomo, Don Luis de Qui...
The following women are confirmed to have had a relationship with Don John. 1. María de Mendoza - María Ana de Austria (1568 – 1629) 2. Anne of Toledo - no known children. 3. Zenobia Sarotosia - male child died at young age (c. 1574) 4. Diana Falangola - Juana de Austria (11 September 1573 – 7 February 1630)
Don John did not fulfill his father's and brother's hopes of joining the clergy as a military career proved more to his liking. In 1565, the 18-year-old left for Barcelona to join the armada for the relief of Malta which was being besieged by the Ottoman Turks. In 1566, he was dubbed the 245th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In 1568, when Don John turned 21, Philip appointed him Captain General of the Sea and commander of Spain’s Mediterranean galley fleet. Don John embarked with the fleet that spring, under the guidance of Philip's confidant, Don Luis de Requeséns, Grand Commander of Castile, and assisted by veterans such as Don Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz. He patrolled Spain's coast and chased Barbary corsairs, his first foray into combat.
Before Don Juan's embarkment, the matter of Don Carlos had come to a head. The prince's behaviour was such that Philip was almost alone in believing he might yet be worthy of the throne. The prince's confessor confided that the prince admitted a desire to kill his father, which alarmed the king. Don Carlos thought to flee court, with the idea that he might bring peace to the Low Countries where rebellion against Philip's rule brewed. He sought the aid of Don Juan, who informed Philip: Don Carlos was subsequently put under arrest. During the summer of 1568, Don Juan was distressed to learn of Don Carlos' death and devastated when, on coming ashore at the end of the campaigning season, he learned of the death of the Queen. While he joined Philip at prayer by the Queen's bier, he seems to have had a falling out with the King over his place in the funeral. Later, he withdrew to a monastery near Valladolid to spend time in prayer and meditation.
When news reached him at Christmastide of the revolt in Granada of the Moriscos (Moors who had converted to Christianity), he volunteered to serve in any capacity. The local grandees in charge, the Marquis of Mondéjar in Granada and the Marquis of los Vélezin Almeria, soon fell out over matters of tactics, strategy and the place of clemency. The revolt spread and aid came from Barbary and the Turks. In April 1569 Philip appointed Don Juan commander-in-chief with Quijada as his chief adviser. In Granada, Don John built his forces with care, learning about logistics and drill. Requeséns and Santa Cruz patrolled the coast with their galleys, limiting aid and reinforcements from Barbary. In December Don John unexpectedly took the field with a large and well-supplied army. First clearing rebels from near Granada, he then marched east through Guadix, where veteran troops from Italy joined him, bringing his numbers to 12,000. In late January he assaulted the rebel stronghold of Galera. Fig...
The War of Cyprus became the focus of Spain’s attention after Pope Pius V sent an envoy to urge Philip to join with him and Venice in a Holy League against the Turks. Philip agreed and negotiations opened in Rome. Among Philip's terms was the appointment of Don John as commander-in-chief of the Holy League armada. While he agreed that Cyprus should be relieved, he was also concerned to recover control of Tunis, where Turks had overthrown the regime of Philip's client Muslim ruler. Tunis posed an immediate threat to Sicily, one of Philip's kingdoms. Philip also had in mind the eventual conquest of Algiers, whose corsairs posed a constant nuisance to Spain. Charles V had tried, and failed, to take it in the course of the Algiers expedition (1541). While Don John finished the pacification of Granada, negotiations dragged on in Rome. In the summer of 1570 an allied fleet of Venetian galleys belonging to the Venetians, Philip sailed for Cyprus, under the pope's admiral Marcantonio Colonn...
All looked forward to the campaign of 1572, but events in France, with the growth of Protestant Huguenot power, seemed to threaten Philip's Low Countries, where the Duke of Alba had restored an uneasy order. Philip ordered Don Juan to hold his part of the Holy League armada at Palermo, prepared to respond to events in France. Colonna took the rest into Greek waters, but achieved nothing. By the time Don Juan joined his allies in late summer, and attempted to take the Turkish citadel of Modon on the Peloponnesus(then known as the Morea), the Turks had too many reinforcements in place. Don John wintered in Naples, from which he made his first visit to his half-sister Margaret, Duchess of Parma, in l'Aquila. They had corresponded for some time and would continue to do so. He confided in her about his love affairs, and after the birth of an illegitimate daughter had her delivered to Margaret's care. His relations with the new Viceroy of Naples, Cardinal Granvelle, an old and experienced...
Don John and Santa Cruz had planned a larger campaign for 1576, when in May he received the long-dreaded orders to proceed directly to the Low Countries as Governor General, following the death of Requeséns. In Rome he once more received encouragement in his schemes to liberate the Queen of Scots, making the governor-generalship more attractive. In northern Italy he halted, and sent his secretary Juan de Escobedo to Spain, to secure more money and win Philip's consent for his plans for the Queen of Scots. When by late summer Escobedo had not returned, Don John sailed for Spain. His shocked brother met with him privately at the Escorial. Philip seems to have accepted Don Juan’s plans for the Queen of Scots, but only after he had secured peace in the Low Countries. Because he was short of money, Philip expected Don John to achieve peace through diplomacy and negotiation. Having received his instructions, Don Juan and a few companions made a dash for the Low Countries across France, re...
On 1 October 1578, Don John reportedly died of what contemporaries called camp fever (typhus). His army gave him a funeral due a hero. He had appointed Farnese his successor as Governor General, which Philip confirmed. His body was dissected, returned to Spain, reassembled and placed by Philip to rest in the unfinished crypt of the Escorial, not far from their father. In time the body had its own niche and a 19th-century marble effigy. Philip, reviewing Don John's papers, found no evidence of disloyalty and put Pérez under arrest.Don John of Austria's life inspired the 1835 play Don Juan d'Autriche by Casimir Delavigne, which served in turn as a source for two operas, Don John of Austria by Isaac Nathan in 1847 and Don Giov...G. K. Chesterton in 1911 published a poem, Lepanto, in which he dubbed Don Juan "the last knight of Europe".In 1956, Louis de Wohl published The Last Crusader: A Novel about Don Juan of Austria, presenting Don Juan of Austria as one of history's most triumphant and inspiring heroes.
John of Austria, 1629–79, Spanish general and statesman; illegitimate son of Philip IV. He helped put down Masaniello's revolt (1647) in Naples, was viceroy of Sicily (1648–51), and fought (1651–52) against the rebels in Catalonia. In 1656, while France was at war with Spain (see Fronde Fronde
Feb 20, 2021 · Juan de Austria, also called Don Juan de Austria, English Don John of Austria, (born February 24, 1547, Regensburg [Germany]—died October 1, 1578, Bouges, near Namur, Spanish Netherlands [now in Belgium]), illegitimate son of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V and half brother of King Philip II of Spain who, as a Spanish military commander, achieved victory over the Turks in the historic naval Battle of Lepanto.
Archduke John of Austria (German: Erzherzog Johann Baptist Joseph Fabian Sebastian von Österreich; 20 January 1782 – 11 May 1859), a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, was an Austrian field marshal and imperial regent (Reichsverweser) of the short-lived German Empire during the Revolutions of 1848
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