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  1. The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse.It was formed in 1567 following the division of the Landgraviate of Hesse between the four sons of Landgrave Philip I.

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  2. George I of Hesse-Darmstadt (10 September 1547 – 7 February 1596) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 to 1596. Born on 10 September 1547 in Kassel, he was the fourth son of Philip I the Magnanimous of Hesse and Christine of Saxony. Following his father's death in 1567 Hesse was divided between his four sons.

  3. Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: Ludwig; 24 September 1577 – 27 July 1626) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626. He was born on 24 September 1577 as the son of George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalene of Lippe. In 1604 he inherited a part of Hessen-Marburg after the death of Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg who was ...

  4. Landgrave Louis X of Hesse-Darmstadt was the son of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and succeeded his father in 1790. He presided over a significant increase in territory for Hesse-Darmstadt during the imperial reorganizations of 1801-1803, most notably the Duchy of Westphalia, hitherto subject to the Archbishop of Cologne.

  5. Louis IX of Hesse-Darmstadt ( German: Ludwig) (15 December 1719 – 6 April 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg . He was born in Darmstadt on 15 December 1719.

  6. George I of Hesse-Darmstadt (10 September 1547 – 7 February 1596) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 to 1596. Born on 10 September 1547 in Kassel, he was the fourth son of Philip I the Magnanimous of Hesse and Christine of Saxony . Following his father's death in 1567 Hesse was divided between his four sons.

    • Georg 1 van Hessen Darmstadt
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    • George I _____, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
    • A Successful Commander and Enlightened Ruler
    • Why Hunting Played Such An Important Role in The Baroque Period
    • The Costs of A Par Force Hunt
    • The Erotic Aspect of The Par Force Hunt

    When he was still a crown prince, at the age of 31, Louis VIII entered the imperial military in 1722. This would be the beginning of a long-year, loyal collaboration with the House of Habsburg. In 1735, Emperor Charles VI named him commander of his cavalry. In this position, Louis VIII defended Maria Theresa’s rights in the First Silesian War and the War of the Austrian Succession. The Austrian ruling couple appreciated Louis. In 1745, Francis I of Lorraine, Maria Theresa’s husband, accorded him the right to present to him the emperor’s election decree. The medal offered at Künker’s on 9 October 2019, showing the officer on horseback in commander’s pose, was likely made to commemorate this honor. Louis VIII occupied the highest commanding posts in the Empress’ and the Empire’s army. During the Seven Years’ War, he served at the rank of General Field Marshal as Commander-in-Chief of the imperial forces – which made him the direct opponent of Frederick II of Prussia. A great career, y...

    Then again, Louis VIII was certainly not the only baroque ruler who went hunting. To the contrary: In his circles, hunting was every prince’s typical pastime, governed in all detail by the court protocol. As early as the Middle Ages, hunting was divided into large game and small game hunting – the former being reserved for the nobles. It focused on red deer, fallow deer and wild boars, dangerous animals like bears, wolfs and lynxes, but also feathered game which was hunted with the help of falcons. While the common people may have caught their quarry with traps, the noble gentlemen were convinced it was solely their bravery and skill that allowed them to take down wild game. Although, they actually did have some sympathy for their noble opponent, at least in theory: On 11 November 1763, when a 32-point deer appeared during a par force hunt, it wasn’t shot but captured and presented in the Landgrave’s menagerie near Kranichstein. This event is commemorated by a medal that was auction...

    Par force hunting was expensive. When Louis VIII’s father, Ernest Louis, brought it to Hesse from France in 1708, he had to invest around 10,000 guldens. A simple livery for a hunting assistant already costed 579 reichstalers! Ernest Louis was the first to build an enclosure specifically for par force hunting. Because of the high costs, only ten German princes later copied him. Louis VIII seems not to have done any par force hunting during his military career. We have a medal only from the year 1751 whose circumscription reads that this kind of hunting came “back from the dead” at that point in time. How much Louis spent on this pleasure of his is witnessed by a precise testimony from 1760: 12,461 guldens. Of that amount, the chief huntsman received 300 guldens per year, the three piqueurs responsible for driving the pack of hounds got a total of 460 guldens, the hay for the 18 horses ridden by the hunting party came in at 923 guldens, the straw stood at 126 guldens. Feeding the pac...

    We do not know the purpose of this half taler offered at Künker’s. It is entirely possible that such souvenirs were given out to all participants of a hunt. That would fit the inscription “O wir armen Hörnerträger haben wider willen Schwäger“ [an untranslatable, ironical allusion to capons, used figuratively for men whose wives sought sexual satisfaction elsewhere, drawing also on similarities in deer with cut antlers that aren’t shed anymore]. Due to the unpredictable route the deer took to try to escape, the often over 100 participants of a hunting party were dispersed over a large area, providing time and place for a rendezvous which, in that erotic era, was practically part of the court protocol. The medals and talers that were offered at Künker’s Auction 327 commemorate this era – and a ruler who is in fact wronged when slightly derogatorily called simply the Hunting Landgrave. If you want to know more about baroque princes and their passion for hunting, continue reading here....

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