Louis IV (German: Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death. Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family , to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe .
Nov 30, 2020 · Genealogy for Ludwig IV Wilhelm Karl von Hessen-Darmstadt (Hessen-Darmstadt), Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837 - 1892) family tree on Geni, with over 225 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives.
- Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein
- March 13, 1892
- September 12, 1837
Charles, Prince of Hesse and by Rhine. Born. April 23, 1809. Father. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse (1777-1848) (71 years) Mother. Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden (1788-1836) (48 years) Marriage. 1836-77 (41 years, died)
- Early Life
- Marriage and Children
- Military Career
- Second Marriage
- Titles, Styles, Honours & Arms
Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany as the son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
On 1 July 1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On the day of the wedding, the Queen issued Letters Patent granting her new son-in-law the style of Royal Highness. This style was only in effect in Great Britain, not the German confederation where Prince Ludwig was only a Grand Ducal Highness. The Queen subsequently created him a Knight of the Garter. The couple had seven children: 1. Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven (VictoriaAlberta Elisabeth Mathilde Marie; 5 April 1863 - 24 September 1950) 2. Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia (ElisabethAlexandra Louise Alice; 1 November 1864 – 18 July 1918) 3. Princess Irene of Prussia (IreneLouise Marie Anne; 11 July 1866 – 11 November 1953) 4. Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse (Ernest LudwigCharles Albert Wilhelm; 25 November 1868 – 9 October 1937) 5. Prince Friedrich Wilhelm August Victor Leopold Ludwig of Hesse and by Rhin...
During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Louis commanded the Hessian cavalry in support of the Austrian side. In the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War, Louis led the Hessian contingent of the armies of the North German Confederation.
Following the death of Princess Alice in 1878, Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage on 30 April 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska (3 September 1854 – 8 May 1941), the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian chargé d'affaires in Darmstadt. His second wife received the title Countess von Romrod. The marriage, which caused great concern within his family, was annulled within a year.
Grand Duke Ludwig IV died on 13 March 1892 and was succeeded by his son, Ernest Louis. His remains are buried at Rosenhöhe, the mausoleum for the Grand Ducal House of Hesse outside of Darmstadt.
1. 12 September 1837 - 13 June 1877: His Grand Ducal HighnessPrince Ludwig of Hesse 2. 1 July 1862 - 13 June 1877: (in the United Kingdom only) His Royal HighnessPrince Ludwig of Hesse 3. 13 June 1877 - 13 March 1892: His Royal HighnessThe Grand Duke of Hesse On 1 July 1862, the day of his wedding, Queen Victoria issued Letters Patent granting her new son-in-law the style of His Royal Highness. This style was only in effect in the United Kingdom and not in Hesse where Prince Ludwig was only s...
1. 1862: Knight of the Garter
Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, also called Grand Duke Ludwig IV was the oldest son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (April 23, 1809 - March 20, 1877) and Princess Elizabeth of Prussia (June 18, 1815 - March 21, 1885). He ruled from June 13, 1877 until his death on March 13, 1892.
- Early Life
- First Marriage
- Military Career
- Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
- Second Marriage
Louis was born at the Prinz-Karl-Palais in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in the German Confederation, the first son and child of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. As his father's elder brother Louis III (1806-1877), the reigning Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, had been married to his first wife since 1833 without legitimate children and from 1868 was married morganatically,Prince Louis was from birth second-in-line to the grand ducal throne, after his father.
On 1 July 1862, Louis married Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On the day of the wedding, the Queen issued a royal warrant granting her new son-in-law the style of Royal Highness in the United Kingdom. The Queen also subsequently made Prince Louis a knight of the Order of the Garter. Although an arranged marriage orchestrated by the bride's father Albert, Prince Consort, the couple did have a brief period of courtship before betrothal and wed willingly, even after the death of the Prince Consort left Queen Victoria in a protracted state of grief that cast a pall over the nuptials. Becoming parents in less than a year following their marriage, the young royal couple found themselves strapped financially to maintain the lifestyle expected of their rank. Princess Alice's interest in social services, scientific development, hands-on child-rearing, charity and intellectual stimulation were not shared by Louis who,...
During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Louis commanded the Hessian cavalry in support of the Austrian side. The Austrians were defeated in the War, and the Hessian grand duchy was in jeopardy of being awarded as the spoils of war to victorious Prussia, which annexed some of Austria's other allies (Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau). Hesse-Darmstadt appears to have been spared this fate only by a cession of territory and the close dynastic kinship between its ruler and the Emperor of Russia (Alexander II's consort, Empress Maria Alexandrovna, was the sister of Hesse's Grand Duke Louis III and of Prince Charles). In the Franco-Prussian War provoked by Bismarck's manipulation of the Ems telegram in 1870, Hesse and by Rhine this time found itself a winning ally of Prussia's, and Prince Louis was credited with courageous military service, especially at the Battle of Gravelotte, which also afforded him the opportunity of mending the previous war's grievances with the House of Hohenzollern by...
In March 1877, Louis became heir presumptiveto the Hessian throne when his father died and, less than three months later, found himself reigning grand duke upon the demise of his uncle, Louis III. A year and a half later, however, Grand Duke Louis was stricken with diphtheria along with most of his immediate family. He recovered; but his four-year-old daughter Marie succumbed, along with his wife of 16 years.From then on, he reigned and raised his five surviving children alone. His daughter Alix married Tsar Nicholas II after two years after his death in 1894.
Grand Duchess Alice having died in 1878, Louis IV contracted a morganatic marriage on 30 April 1884 in Darmstadt (on the eve of the wedding of his eldest daughter, for which Queen Victoria and other relatives of his first wife were gathered in the Hessian capital) with Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska (3 September 1854 – 8 May 1941), daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski and Countess Marianna Rzewuska. She was the former wife of Aleksander von Kolemin, the Russian chargé d'affaires in Darmstadt. But the couple, facing objections from the Grand Duke's in-laws, separated within a week and the marriage was annulled within three months. As a compensation, she received the title Countess von Romrodon 31 May 1884 and a financial compensation. Alexandrine later married for the third time to Basil von Bacheracht.
Grand Duke Ludwig IV died on 13 March 1892, of a heart attack in the New Palace in Darmstadt and was succeeded by his son, Ernest Louis. After his second marriage, he was largely excluded from his first wife's British royal family, but his funeral was attended by Victoria, the Empress Dowager of Germany, by the Dowager Duchess of Albany, and by the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, by the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, by the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augusterburg and by the Duke and Duchess of Argyll. It was not attended by his other two surviving in-laws, the Prince and Princess of Wales or by Queen Victoria due to her poor health. His remains are buried at Rosenhöhe, the mausoleum for the Grand Ducal House outside of Darmstadt.German orders and decorationsForeign orders and decorations
Ludwig IV (September 12, 1837 – March 13, 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from June 13, 1877 until his death. Through his own and his children’s marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe.