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  1. Louis Pasteur ForMemRS ( / ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr /, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization.

  2. May 26, 2021 · Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, located in the Jura region of France. He grew up in the town of Arbois, and his father, Jean-Joseph Pasteur, was a tanner and a sergeant major...

    • Early Life and Education
    • Study of Optical Activity
    • Fermentation and Pasteurization
    • Germ Theory
    • A New Laboratory
    • Attenuating Microbes For Vaccines: Fowl Cholera and Anthrax
    • Rabies and The Beginnings of The Institut Pasteur
    • A Great Experimenter and Innovative Theorist

    Pasteur was born in Dole, France, the middle child of five in a family that had for generations been leather tanners. Young Pasteur’s gifts seemed to be more artistic than academic until near the end of his years in secondary school. Spurred by his mentors’ encouragement, he undertook rigorous studies to compensate for his academic shortcomings in ...

    While waiting for an appropriate appointment Pasteur continued to work as a laboratory assistant at the École Normale. There he made further progress on the research he had begun for his doctoral dissertation—investigating the ability of certain crystals or solutions to rotate plane-polarized light clockwise or counterclockwise, that is, to exhibit...

    Pasteur secured his academic credentials with scientific papers on this and related research and was then appointed in 1848 to the faculty of sciences in Strasbourg and in 1854 to the faculty in Lille. There he launched his studies on fermentation. Pasteur sided with the minority view among his contemporaries that each type of fermentation is carri...

    At the same time Pasteur began his fermentation studies, he adopted a related view on the cause of diseases. He and a minority of other scientists believed that diseases arose from the activities of microorganisms—germ theory. Opponents believed that diseases, particularly major killer diseases, arose in the first instance from a weakness or imbala...

    Pasteur did not, however, fully engage in studies of disease until the late 1870s, after several cataclysmic changes had rocked his life and that of the French nation. In 1868, in the middle of his silkworm studies, he suffered a stroke that partially paralyzed his left side. Soon thereafter, in 1870, France suffered a humiliating defeat at the han...

    In his research campaign against disease Pasteur first worked on expanding what was known about anthrax, but his attention was quickly drawn to fowl cholera. This investigation led to his discovery of how to make vaccines by attenuating, or weakening, the microbe involved. Pasteur usually “refreshed” the laboratory cultures he was studying—in this ...

    Pasteur then wanted to move into the more difficult area of human disease, in which ethical concerns weighed more heavily. He looked for a disease that afflicts both animals and humans so that most of his experiments could be done on animals, although here too he had strong reservations. Rabies, the disease he chose, had long terrified the populace...

    Pasteur’s career shows him to have been a great experimenter, far less concerned with the theory of disease and immune response than with dealing directly with diseases by creating new vaccines. Still it is possible to discern his notions on the more abstract topics. Early on he linked the immune response to the biological, especially nutritional, ...

    • 4 min
  3. Louis Pasteur, French chemist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. Pasteur’s contributions to science, technology, and medicine are nearly without precedent. His accomplishments earned him France’s highest decoration, the Legion of Honour. Learn about his life and discoveries.

  4. Louis Pasteur was one of the first scientists to discover the role of microorganisms in disease and how sickness could be prevented by vaccines. At the time, it was widely believed that...

  5. Lived 1822 - 1895. Louis Pasteur is one of the 'greats' of science. Countless millions of people alive today owe their lives to his discoveries. Pasteur revolutionized chemistry and biology with his discovery of mirror-image organic molecules, then founded microbiology with his work on fermentation, his discovery of anaerobic bacteria, and his establishment of the

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