Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; French pronunciation: ; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months just before he was executed by guillotine.
Louis XVI, also called (until 1774) Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry, (born August 23, 1754, Versailles, France—died January 21, 1793, Paris), the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789.
Apr 23, 2021 · Louis XVI was the last Bourbon king of France who was executed in 1793 for treason. In 1770 he married Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette, the daughter of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor...
- Early Life
- Marriage to Marie Antoinette
- The Financial Crisis
- Prisoner of The Revolution
- Last Days as Monarch
The future Louis XVI was born at Versailles in August 1754. He was the second son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his German-born wife Maria Josepha. At the time of his birth, Louis was third in line to the throne, behind his father and older brother. Because of this, the young prince was sidelined and not trained for royal duties. Louis was a strong student nevertheless, excelling in history and languages. An avid hunter like his grandfather Louis XV, the prince also studied locksmithing as a useful hobby. Louis’ life changed in the 1760s, when tuberculosis claimed his older brother (1761) and his father (1765), leaving the 10-year-old prince as heir to the Bourbon throne.
Five years later, Louis entered into an arranged marriage with Marie Antoinette, a 14-year-old Austrian princess. The union was orchestrated by his grandfather, Louis XV, and the bride’s powerful mother, Maria Theresa, to secure a lasting alliance between France and Austria. Louis and Antoinette’s first fumbling attempts at love-making were disastrous, due to the young prince suffering an extended foreskin that made erections painful and sexual intercourse almost impossible. Louis underwent surgery to correct this problem but Antoinette did not conceive a child until eight years after their marriage. In May 1774, Louis XV died and his grandson ascended to the throne, aged 19. The young Louis XVI was moderately intelligent, aware of his royal responsibilities and alert to the need for strong leadership – but he proved a mediocre king, relying excessively on his advisors and showing insufficient interest in the business of state. Louis preferred his regular leisure pursuits to reading...
The French Revolution was precipitated by a financial crisis. Louis XVI ruled one of the world’s most powerful empires – but he also governed a nation choked by debt, fiscal mismanagement and a corrupt and inequitable system of taxation. Competent ministers gave the king sound advice on how to correct France’s financial woes. He wisely accepted much of this advice, however, attempts at reform were blocked by obstinate nobles in the parlements and the Assembly of Notables. In 1788, the financial crisis became a political crisis when the king was wrestled into summoning an Estates-General, France’s closest equivalent to a national parliament. Neither Louis or his ministers foresaw the political challenges that lay ahead. The king initiated the Estates-General in May 1789, hoping to push through some fiscal reforms – but the delegates representing the Third Estatehad other plans, invoking a confrontation over voting rights, representation and national power. A month into the Estates-Ge...
From this point, the fate of Louis XVI was tied to the events of the revolution. The king might have retained both his throne and his life had he understood the revolution, accepted its inevitability and showed appropriate judgement. Instead, he clung to a misguided hope that the changes wrought by the revolution could be minimised or even reversed. As the revolution progressed, Louis slipped from political leader to political prisoner. In October 1789, a violent mob assailed the royal family at Versailles and forced the king to relocate to Paris. He promised loyalty to the new state and its constitution, however, the revolutionary government’s attacks on the church and émigrénobles alienated the king, who believed that things had gone too far. In June 1791, Louis and his family all but abandoned the new regime by attempting to flee Paris. They got as far as Varennes, where they were arrested and turned back to the capital under guard. Moderate politicians tried to recover the king’...
Under siege from the people, the Assembly had no alternative but to suspend the king and dissolve itself. The government passed to a National Convention, which abandoned the 1791 constitution, abolished the monarchy and initiated a French republic. As for the former king, he spent his last weeks in the Temple, a fortress in the northern suburbs of Paris, while deputies in the Convention debated his fate. By late 1792 they had resolved to put the king on trial, not before an independent court but before the Convention itself. It was an extraordinary move of questionable legality – but there was no avenue to review or challenge it. Louis’ trialbegan in December and lasted five weeks. The former king and his lawyers mounted a staunch defence to the charges levied by the Convention – but the guilty verdict was probably a foregone conclusion. Louis Capet, as he was known by then, was found guilty on January 17th 1793 and executed four days later. Contemporary reports suggest he went to h...
One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris.
Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774 and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a last-ditch attempt to resolve his countrys financial crisis, Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three estates of the French peoplethe nobles, the clergy, and the commons. The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estatethe commonsused the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution. On July 14, 1789, violence erupted when Parisians stormed the Bastillea state prison where they believed ammunition was stored.
In August 1792, the royal couple was arrested by the sans-cullottes and imprisoned, and in September the monarchy was abolished by the National Convention (which had replaced the National Assembly). In November, evidence of Louis XVIs counterrevolutionary intrigues with Austria and other foreign nations was discovered, and he was put on trial for treason by the National Convention.
The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. On January 21, he walked steadfastly to the guillotine and was executed. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was convicted of treason by a tribunal, and on October 16 she followed her husband to the guillotine.
Oct 05, 2020 · Context: Termed the goût grec when it emerged circa 1750, Louis XVI style reflects a reaction against the florid stylings of the previous era — and, according to some historians, a nostalgic impulse for the grandeur of the Louis XIV’s reign. During the second half of the 18th-century, French furniture underwent a Neoclassical revision.
1774 LOUIS XVI COIN SEE PHOTOS FOR CONDITION. $7.77. 1 bid. Free shipping. Ending Thursday at 2:01PM PDT 3d 21h. 1792, France (1st Rep.), Louis XVI. Large Silver Ecu ...
Apr 02, 2014 · Louis XV was king of France from 1715 to 1774. He is best known for contributing to the decline of royal authority that led to the French Revolution in 1789.
There is no question that Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette died under the guillotine during the French Revolution. It is the fate of their 10 year old son, Louis Charles, who disappeared in 1795, that is the mystery. After the death of his father, Louis Charles was the uncrowned King of France, Louis XVII.
Mar 23, 2019 · Over 60 years. 3 floors packed full of antiques. Large amount of oil paintings, French bombe Commode, Louis XVI mantle clock with porcelain dial, vintage toys, Navajo rug, Persian carpets, full kitchen, books including vintage and so much more. 3 floors full. Lady of the house was a huge Francophile and loved everything old and French.
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