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  1. Narmer - Wikipedia › wiki › Narmer

    5 days ago · Narmer's tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab near Abydos in Upper Egypt consists of two joined chambers (B17 and B18), lined in mud brick. Although both Émile Amélineau and Petrie excavated tombs B17 and B18, it was only in 1964 that Kaiser identified them as being Narmer's.

  2. Siege - Wikipedia › wiki › Siege_works

    The stone and mud brick houses of Kot Diji were clustered behind massive stone flood dikes and defensive walls, for neighbouring communities quarrelled constantly about the control of prime agricultural land. Mundigak (c. 2500 BC) in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun-dried bricks.

  3. Amman - Wikipedia › wiki › Aman,_JO

    Until 1900 settlement was concentrated in the valley and slopes of the Amman stream and settlers built mud-brick houses with wooden roofs. The French Dominican priest Marie-Joseph Lagrange commented in 1890 about Amman: "A mosque, the ancient bridges, all that jumbled with the houses of the Circassians gives Amman a remarkable physiognomy". [55]

    • 7250 BC
    • Jordan
  4. Samarkand - Wikipedia › wiki › Sarmakhand

    Jul 14, 2021 · The elements of traditional Islamic architecture can be seen in traditional mud-brick Uzbek houses that are built around central courtyards with gardens. Most of these houses have painted wooden ceilings and walls. By contrast, houses in the west of the city are chiefly European-style homes built in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    • City Administration
    • Cultural: i, ii, iv
  5. Ancient Greek temple - Wikipedia › wiki › Temple_(Greek)

    The first temples were mostly mud, brick, and marble structures on stone foundations. The columns and superstructure (entablature) were wooden, door openings and antae were protected with wooden planks. The mud brick walls were often reinforced by wooden posts, in a type of half-timbered technique. The elements of this simple and clearly ...

  6. History of Palestine - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Palestine

    Jul 12, 2021 · The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, defined as the territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today). Strategically situated between three continents, Palestine has a tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics.

  7. Kandahar - Wikipedia › wiki › Kandqaahar
    • Name
    • History
    • Geography
    • Transport
    • Education
    • Communications
    • Places of Interest
    • Development and Modernization
    • Demography and Culture
    • References

    The city was founded by Alexander the Great in 330 BC who named it Alexandria in Arachosia, which was the recorded name for this city until the Islamic conquest. It is suggested that the name "Kandahar" evolved from "Iskandar" pronounced as "Scandar" , in the local dialect version of the name Alexander. The change of the name from "Scandar" to Candar is mentioned by the 15th century Portuguese historian João de Barrosin his most famous "Décadas da Ásia". A folk etymology offered is that the word "kand" or "qand" in Persian and Pashto (the local languages) means "candy". The name "Candahar" or "Kandahar" in this form probably translates to candy area. This probably has to do with the location being fertile and historically known for producing fine grapes, pomegranates, apricots, melons and other sweet fruits.[citation needed] Ernst Herzfeld claimed Kandahar perpetuated the name of the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares, who re-founded the city under the name Gundopharron. An alternative...


    Excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupreeand others suggest that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far. British excavations in the 1970s discovered that Kandahar existed as a large fortified city during the early 1st millennium BCE; while this earliest period at Kandahar has not been precisely dated via radiocarbon, ceramic comparisons with the latest period at the major Bronze Age city of Mundigak have suggested an approx...


    The now "Old Kandahar" was founded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great, near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak (established around 3000 BC). Mundigak served as the provincial capital of Arachosia and was ruled by the Medes followed by the Achaemenids until the arrival of the Greeks from Macedonia. The main inhabitants of Arachosia were the Pakhtas, an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe, who may be among the ancestors of today's Pashtuns. Kandahar was named Alexandria, a name given to cities that...

    Islamic period

    In the 7th century AD, Arab armies conquered the region with the new religion of Islam but were unable to succeed in fully converting the population. The leader of the expedition that conquered the city was Abbad ibn Ziyad, who governed Sijistan between 673 and 681. In AD 870, Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, a local ruler of the Saffarid dynasty, conquered Kandahar and the rest of the nearby regions in the name of Islam. It is believed that the Zunbil dynasty, were probably the rulers of the Kandaha...

    The Arghandab River runs along the west of Kandahar. The city has 15 districts and a total land area of 27,337 hectares.The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902.

    Kandahar International Airportserves as southern Afghanistan's main airport for domestic and international flights. It is also used as a major military base as well as shipping and receiving of supplies for the NATO armies. The entire area in and around the airport is heavily guarded but a section is designated for civilian passengers. Most international flights are to the UAE, Iran, India, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Pakistan plans to build a railroad track from the Pakistani town of Chaman to Kandahar which will connect Afghan Railways with Pakistan Railways. The feasibility study was completed in 2006 but as of 2012[update]no construction work had begun. Kandahar is connected to Quetta Pakistan Via Chaman Boarder and Kabul by the Kabul-Kandahar Highway and to Herat by the Kandahar-Herat Highway. There is a bus station located at the start of the Kabul-Kandahar Highway, where a number of privately owned older-model Mercedes-Benz coach buses are available to take passengers to most...

    Before the 1978 coup in Kabul, majority of the city's population were enrolled in schools.[citation needed] Nearly all of the elite class of the city fled to neighboring Pakistan during the early 1980s, and from there they began immigrating to North America, the European Union, Australia and other parts of the world.[citation needed] The two oldest known schools are Ahmad Shah Baba High School and Zarghona Ana High School. There are a number of new schools that opened in the last decade, with more being built in the future as the city's population grows with the large returning Afghans from neighboring countries. Afghan Turk High Schools is one of the top private schools in the city. The main university is Kandahar University. A number of training centers have also opened in the last decade.[citation needed]

    Telecommunication services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless, Roshan, Etisalat, MTN Group and Afghan Telecom. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a $64.5 million agreement with ZTEfor the establishment of a countrywide fiber optical cable network. This was intended to improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kandahar but throughout the country.

    The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the city centre, which also houses Durrani's brass helmet and other personal items. In front of Durrani's mausoleum is the Shrine of the Cloak, containing one of the most valued relics in the Islamic world, which was given by the Emir of Bokhara (Murad Beg) to Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis. Mullah Omar took it out in November 1996 and displayed it to a crowd of ulema of religious scholars to have himself declared Amir al-Mu'minin(Commander of the Faithful). Prior to that it was taken out when the city was struck by a cholera epidemic in the 1930s. The village of Sher Surkh is located southeast of the city, in the suburbs of the old city of Nadirabad. Kandahar Museum is located at the western end of the third block of buildings lining the main road east of Eidgah Durwaza(gate). It has many paintings by the now famous Ghiyassuddin, painted while he was a young teacher in Ka...

    Decades of war left Kandahar and the rest of the country destroyed and depopulated, but in recent years billions of dollars began pouring in for construction purposes and millions of expats have returned to Afghanistan. New residential areas have been established around the city, and a number of modern-style buildings have been constructed. Some residents of the city have access to clean drinking water and electricity, and the government is working to extend these services to every home. The city relies on electricity from the Kajaki hydroelectricity plant in neighbouring Helmand, which is being upgraded or expanded. About 30 km (20 mi) north of the city is the Dahla Dam, the second largest dam in Afghanistan. The Aino Mina is a new housing project for up to two million people on the northern edge of the city. Originally called the Kandahar Valley and started by Mahmud Karzai, it was announced that the project would build up to 20,000 single-family homes and associated infrastructur...

    The population of Kandahar numbers approximately 491,500 as of 2012[update]. The Pashtuns make up the overwhelming majority population of the city and province but exact figures are not available. In a 2003 estimate by the National Geographic, Pashtuns were put at ca. 70%, Tajiks 20%, Baloch 2%, and Uzbeks2%. Pashto serves as the main language in the city and the region. Persian is also understood by a fair number of the city dwellers, especially those serving in the government and the educated Afghans. Both are the official languages of Afghanistan. A 2006 compendium of provincial data prepared by the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development and United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan(UNAMA) states: In another report, by BBC news Farsi, there are roughly 50,000-100,000 Tajik or Persian speakers in the city of Kandahar.The "Council for Tajiks of the south" head office is also based in Kandahar city. The Pashtun cultureis dominant in this region.

    Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977) [1st Edition: 1970]. An Historical Guide to Afghanistan(2nd Edition, Revised and Enlarged ed.). Afghan Tourist Organization.
    Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE.Draft annotated English translation.
    Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
    Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia. World Publishing company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mentor Book edition, 1966.
  8. 11.2: The pyramids of Egypt - Engineering LibreTexts › Sandboxes › bucky

    Jul 15, 2021 · The blocks were taken up the pyramid using ramps of mud brick and rubble. While ancient Egyptians used ropes and levers there is no evidence of the use of pulleys. Even if they had knowledge of pulleys it is unclear if a block and tackle of sufficient strength could be made to move such large blocks.

  9. The Pyramid of Senusret II – Al Lahoun, Egypt - Atlas Obscura › the-pyramid-of-senusret-ii

    Jul 15, 2021 · Senusret II ruled Egypt during the end of the 1800s BCE. When he died, he was placed in a pyramid tomb like many Egyptian rulers before and since. However Senusret II’s tomb, like his father’s ...

  10. Elixir Of Knowledge

    Jul 06, 2021 · Some artifacts, tools, rings, scarabs, coloured pottery vessels, and mud-brick houses bearing seals of Amenhotep’s cartouche that were unseen for centuries have also been found. Zahi Hawass reported that Luxor’s southern province’s mortuary city was encountered under an Egyptian mission on Thursday.

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