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    Nabonidus's mother, Addagoppe, was of Assyrian or Aramean ancestry. His father, Nabu-balatsu-iqbi, of whom little is known, was probably also either Assyrian or Aramean. Some historians have speculated that either Addagoppe or Nabu-balatsu-iqbi were members of the Sargonid dynasty, rulers of the Neo-Assyrian Empire until its fall in 609 BC.

    • 25 May 556 BC – 13 October 539 BC
    • Addagoppe
    • Reign
    • The Persian Conquest
    • Nabonidus' Death and Legacy
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    In most ancient accounts, Nabonidus is depicted as a royal anomaly. He worshiped the moon god Sîn (mythology) beyond all the other gods, and paid special devotion to Sîn's temple in Harran, where his mother was a priestess. After successful campaigns in Edom and Cilicia (modern Turkey) early in his reign, he left Babylon, residing at the rich desert oasis of Tayma, (Temâ) in Arabia, returning only after many years. In the meantime, his son Belshazzar ruled from Babylon. Nabonidus is harshly criticized for neglecting the Babylonian chief god, Marduk and failing to observe the New Year festivals in Babylon. The Nabonidus Chroniclecomplains that for several years: "The king did not come to Babylon for the [New Year's] ceremonies… the image of the god Bêl (Marduk) did not go out of the Esagila (temple) in procession, the festival of the New Year was omitted."

    Various accounts survive describing the fall of Babylon during the reign of Nabonidus. According to the Cyrus cylinder, the people opened their gates for Cyrus and greeted him as a liberator. Herodotus says that Cyrus defeated the Babylonian army outside the city, after which he instituted a siege of city. When this took too long, he diverted the Euphrates, so that his troops could march into the city through the river bed. Xenophon agrees with this, but he does not mention the battle.Finally, Berossus agrees that that Cyrus defeated the Babylonian army, after which Nabonidus fled to nearby Borsippa. There he hid, while Cyrus took Babylon and demolished its outer walls. When he turned toward Borsippa, Nabonidus soon surrendered himself. More helpful is the Nabonidus Chronicle,which is a part of the Babylonian Chronicles—terse, factual accounts of historical events, considered to be reliable, although not very detailed. This text has the following to say on the taking of Babylon by C...

    Accounts by Berossus and others mention that Nabonidus' life was spared, and that he was allowed to retire in Carmania. This conforms with other accounts indicating that Cyrus the Greatwas known for sparing the lives of the kings whom he had defeated when it served his purposes. Nabonidus successor, Cyrus, brought an end to the Neo-Babylonian Empire and initiated the ascendancy of Persia. Cyrus' policy of returning religious artifacts and priests to their home sanctuaries soon extended to the empire's western regions as well, as he allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem with their sacred vessels and begin rebuilding the Temple. Thus, the end of Nabonidus' reign also marks the beginning of the end of the Babylonian exileof the Jews, as well as the beginning of the Persian Empire.

    Beard, Mary, and John A. North. Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World. London: Duckworth, 1990. ISBN 9780715622063.
    Beaulieu, Paul-Alain. The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, 556-539 B.C.E. Yale Near Eastern researches, 10. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 9780300043143.
    —. Legal and Administrative Texts from the Reign of Nabonidus. Yale oriental series, v. 19. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 9780300057706.
    Crawford, Harriet E. W. Regime Change in the Ancient Near East and Egypt: From Sargon of Agade to Saddam Hussein. Proceedings of the British Academy, 136. Oxford: Oxford University Press for The Br...

    All links retrieved November 2, 2018. 1. Nabonidus Cylinder from Sippar 2. Nabonidus Cylinder from Ur 3. Nabonidus Chronicle

  2. Nabonidus, king of Babylonia from 556 until 539 bc, when Babylon fell to Cyrus, king of Persia. After a popular rising led by the priests of Marduk, chief god of the city, Nabonidus, who favoured the moon god Sin, made his son Belshazzar coregent and spent much of his reign in Arabia.

  3. Jul 22, 2021 · Nabonidus was a religious reformer, and many believe he left to avoid intrigue at the hands of Babylonian clergy and their elite supporters, who may have been hostile to his interest in changing traditional spiritual practices. It seems Nabonidus was an ardent worshipper of the Babylonian moon god Sîn . This deity was an ancient one indeed ...

    • Nathan Falde
  4. nabonidus, belshazzar, and the book of daniel: an update William H. Shea [William H. Shea, Ph.D., is associate professor of Old Testament at Andrews University Theological Seminary, Berrien Springs, MI, and is a frequent contributor to Bible and Spade.]

  5. Cylinders of Nabonidus. The Cylinders of Nabonidus refer to cuneiform text inscribed on 5 cylinders that are classified as foundation texts, because they were found in the foundation of buildings of a temple complex. The main purpose of these foundation cylinders was to record Nabonidus' work of repairing and rebuilding the temple complexes ...

  6. Aug 20, 2014 · The Lost Years of Nabonidus, Last King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Nabonidus was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556-539 BC. He took the throne after the assassination of the boy-king Labashi-Marduk, who was murdered in a conspiracy only nine months after his inauguration. It is not known whether Nabonidus played a ...

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