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  1. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English politician and military officer who is widely regarded as one of the most important statesmen in English history. He came to prominence during the 1639 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, first as a senior commander in the Parliamentarian army and then as a politician.

    • English
    • pre-1642 (militia service), 1642–1651 (civil war)
    • Early Life
    • Cavalry Commander
    • Marston Moor to Preston
    • The Republic
    • Ireland & Scotland
    • Lord Protector
    • Foreign Policy
    • Death

    Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599, his father was Robert Cromwell, a modest country gentleman, and his mother was Elizabeth Steward. Oliver spent his childhood in Huntingdon before attending Cambridge University for one year. Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier on 22 August 1620, and they went on to have seven children, the most famous bei...

    In July 1642, England finally descended into civil war after years of political wrangling and empty promises between Parliament and King Charles I. The two sides had disagreed over money, religion, and how political power should be distributed. The opposing sides became known as the 'Roundheads' (Parliamentarians) and 'Cavaliers' (Royalists). Durin...

    The result of the first major engagement of the Civil War at the battle of Edgehill in Warwickshire in October 1642 was indecisive, a lack of progress that would become typical of the long-drawn-out conflict. The First Battle of Newbury in Berkshire in September 1643 ended in another draw. Parliament had the bulk of resources and control of both th...

    The Battle of Preston in Lancashire (17-20 August 1648) was another great Parliamentary victory. Cromwell led the Model Army against a larger Scottish army that had hoped the restoration of Charles would promote the Presbyterian Church in Scotland and England. Cromwell went on to recapture Berwick, Carlisle, and Pontefract, securing the north of En...

    Before Cromwell could deal with the Scots, he first led an army of 12,000 men to Ireland in 1650 to ruthlessly crush a Royalist rebellion there. The Model Army won crushing victories at Wexford and Drogheda. The accusations of extreme violence to captured soldiers and hundreds of unnecessary civilian deaths in the Irish campaign tainted Cromwell's ...

    There remained serious cracks in this enforced unity of Britain. Parliament and the army were still at odds, and few could agree on how to proceed without a monarchy. On 20 April 1653, Cromwell entered Parliament and informed its members they were not fit to rule, famously declaring, "You have sat here too long for the good you do. In the name of G...

    Foreign rulers looked on at the bloody events in England and the execution of a king with horror, but none offered any practical assistance to the royalist cause after Charles' death. The disharmony in government in England through the 1650s was in no way helped by wars with the Dutch and then Spanish, although Cromwell earned the respect, if not t...

    At the pinnacle of his powers, higher than any monarch before him, Cromwell suffered from what even he could not control: ill-health. He died of pneumonia at Whitehall Palaceon 3 September 1658 (the date of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester). Cromwell received a state funeral worthy of a king, indeed, by the Lord Protector's body in Westminster...

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  2. Nov 17, 2019 · Oliver Cromwell was a political and military leader in 17th century England who served as Lord Protector, or head of state, of the Commonwealth of England, Oliver Cromwell was an English...

    • Early Life
    • Military and Political Leader
    • Death and Execution
    • Popular Culture

    Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon, a small town near Cambridge, on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Steward. Although not a direct descendent of Henry VIII’s chief minister Thomas Cromwell (who was famously promoted to the earldom of Essex but later executed in 1540 when he fell from the King’s favou...

    The summer of 1642 saw the outbreak of the first English Civil Warbetween the Royalists, the supporters of King Charles I who claimed that the King should have absolute power as his divine right as king, and the Parliamentarians who favoured a constitutional monarchy and later the abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords completely. Colloqu...

    It is thought that Cromwell suffered from kidney stones or similar urinary/kidney complaints and in 1658 in the aftermath of malarial fever Cromwell was once again struck down with a urinary infection, which saw his decline and eventual death at the age of 59 on Friday 3 September. Co-incidentally this was also the anniversary of his victories at W...

    Despite his death over 350 years ago, to this day Cromwell continues to provoke a strong reaction following his significant role in a dramatic and troubled period of British history. He has prompted numerous monuments, films, television and radio programmes and been broadly referenced throughout popular culture, from being the codeword to warn of a...

  3. Alternative style. Sir. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England and primarily because of ethnic cleansing activities in Ireland euphemistically called as Cromwellian Genocide.

  4. Jan 3, 2023 · Oliver Cromwell remains one of the most divisive figures in British history: some hail him as a champion of democracy and radical revolutionary, whilst others label him as a Puritan killjoy who oversaw the execution of the king. Whatever your opinion, Cromwell overturned years of established order in England and oversaw a pivotal period in English history and his legacy has been far-reaching.

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