Otto Rank (/ r ɑː ŋ k /; German: ; né Rosenfeld; 22 April 1884 – 31 October 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher.Born in Vienna, he was one of Sigmund Freud's closest colleagues for 20 years, a prolific writer on psychoanalytic themes, editor of the two leading analytic journals of the era, managing director of Freud's publishing house, and a creative theorist and ...
Oct 27, 2020 · Otto Rank, original name Otto Rosenfeld, (born April 22, 1884, Vienna, Austria-Hungary [now in Austria]—died October 31, 1939, New York City, New York, U.S.), Austrian psychologist who extended psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth, art, and creativity and who suggested that the basis of anxiety neurosis is a psychological trauma occurring during the birth of the individual.
Work with Freud
Rank was a fruitful writer, extending psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth, art, and other works of creativity. He worked particularly closely with Freud, not just in a secretarial role, but also in contributing two new chapters, on myth and legend, to later editions of The Interpretation of Dreams. Rank's name appeared underneath Freud's on the title page of Freud's greatest work for many years. Everyone in the small psychoanalytic world understood how much Freud respected Rank...
In his early work, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero, Rank examined various stories of heroes, found in different cultural traditions: Babylonian (story of kings Gilgamesh and Sargon), Hindu (myth of hero Karna), Persian (story of King Cyrus), Greek (heroes Oedipus, Hercules, Paris), Roman (Romulus and Remus), Celtic (Tristan), German (heroes Siegfried and Lohengrin), Jewish (Moses), Buddhist (story of Siddhartha), and Christian (story of Jesus). Rank found common patterns that exist in all o...
Creativity and will
Rank saw art as an act of re-creation. He claimed that artists possessed a strong urge to recreate reality in their own image, or to glorify their own will (or ego). Good art, however, begins when the artist identifies himself with the collective will of his own culture, and combines material values with spiritual, and individual with collective. The good artist, claimed Rank, is equipped with power—with the will to create. However, he recognized that it is not easy to reach the stage when on...
Rollo May, a pioneer of existential psychotherapy in the United States, was deeply influenced by Rank’s post-Freudian lectures and writings and always considered Rank to be the most important precursor of existential therapy. Carl Rogers always credited Rank with having profoundly shaped "client-centered" therapy and the entire profession of counseling. Paul Goodman, who was co-founder with Fritz Perls of the popular Gestalt method of psychotherapy, described Rank’s post-Freudian ideas on art and creativityas “beyond praise.” In 1974, the sociologist Ernest Becker won the Pulitzer Prize for The Denial of Death (1973), which was based on Rank’s post-Freudian writings, especially Will Therapy (1929–31), Psychology and the Soul (1930), and Art and Artist(1932). Rank is seen as one of the great pioneers in the fields of Gestalt therapy, and humanistic, existential, and transpersonal psychology. His stress on the importance of the early mother-child relationship has come to be considered...Rank, Otto. 1911. The Lohengrin Saga.Rank, Otto. 1932. Art and Artist: Creative Urge and Personality Development. Agathon Press. ISBN 0875860109Rank, Otto. 1932. Modern Education: A Critique of Its Fundamental Ideas.Agathon Press.Rank, Otto. 1958. Beyond Psychology. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486204855Karpf, Fay B. 1970. The Psychology and Psychotherapy of Otto Rank: An Historical and Comparative Introduction. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0837130298Lieberman, James E. 1985. Acts of Will: The Life and Work of Otto Rank. Free Press. ISBN 0029190207Menaker, Esther. 1982. Otto Rank: A Rediscovered Legacy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231051166Menaker, Esther. 1996. Separation, Will, and Creativity: The Wisdom of Otto Rank. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. ISBN 1-56-821-802-8
Otto Rank Otto Rank was a renowned Austrian writer, teacher and psychoanalyst. Born on April 22 nd, 1884, in Vienna, he was a very ardent writer on concepts and theories of psychoanalysis. He served as an editor of two of the most significant analytic journals as well as managing director of the publishing house run by Sigmund Freud.
Otto Rank studied how birth impacts individuals’ psychology and creates anxiety throughout their lives in Europe and the US during the nineteenth century.
Otto Rank (1884–1939), psychoanalyst and social philosopher, was born of middle-class Jewish parentage in Vienna, lived for many years in Paris, and died in New York a U.S. citizen. At 21 Rank became Freud’s brilliant protégé and soon one of the leading psychoanalytic figures.
May 19, 2020 · In discussing work Otto Rank links creativity to struggle and conflict.
- Professional Life
- Contribution to Psychology
- Selected Works by Otto Rank
Otto Rank was born on April 22, 1884 in Vienna. When he was 21, Rank met Sigmund Freud, after Freud had read a manuscript written by Rank. Freud subsequently appointed Rank to act as secretary of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1906. The two became friends and were close confidants, with Rank acting as Freud’s assistant for nearly two decades. Freud encouraged Rank to study at the University of Vienna, where Rank earned his PhD in 1912. Rank and Freud worked together to expand Freud’s theories, and Rank was a co-founder of the International Psychoanalytical Association in 1910. Rank was a prolific psychoanalytic writer, second only to Freud, and served as the resident expert on philosophy and literature in the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Rank visited the United States in 1924, the same year that he published The Trauma of Birth, in which Rank revealed his claim that neurosis resulted from the trauma an infant experiences at being separated from the mother. Rank’s theories be...
Rank was a prolific writer, publishing numerous books dedicated to psychology, creativity, and dream analysis. He believed that therapy was a learning process, and that clients could unlearn maladaptive behaviors with creativity and guidance. Rank is recognized for his influence on client-centered therapy, and his post-Freudian lectures impacted the work of many other great psychologists of the time, including Carl Rogers and Rollo May. Rank was among the first psychotherapists to try dramatic therapies, and he argued in his book Will Therapythat the emotional life of each person exists in the present tense—a phenomenon he termed the here-and-now. Other significant contributions include: 1. Using short-term therapy with his clients, and aiming for a more egalitarian relationship in therapy than Freud had traditionally advised. 2. Advocating psychoanalytic training for homosexuals. 3. Emphasizing the role the early mother-child relationship plays in subsequent life developments; Rank...The Artist (1907)The Interpretation of Dreams (1914)Truth and Reality (1929)The Trauma of Birth(1929)
- Hired by Freud
- Breaks with Freud
- Emigrates to The United States
Rank was extremely well-read in literature and philosophy. After discovering the works of Freud, he wrote an essay that applied Freud's theory of dreams to the creativity of artists. On reading the essay, Freud was so impressed that in 1906 he hired Rank as the secretary of the newly founded Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Soon, Rank was a member of the "Committee of Seven," Freud's inner circle. Although only 22, Rank was considered to be the resident expert on mythology, literature, and philosophy. With financial support from Freud, Rank earned his Ph.D. from the University of Vienna in 1912, with the first ever dissertation on psychoanalysis. Entitled The Lohengrin Legend, it was published in 1911. Rank was the first psychoanalyst without a medical degree. Rank lived with Freud and together they trained psychoanalysts from all over the world. However as Freud's favorite, he engendered the anger and jealousy of other Freud disciples. Rank edited Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams...
In The Trauma of Birth, published in German in 1924 and in English in 1929, Rank extended Freud's ideas to mother-child relationships. He viewed the child's separation from the mother at birth and weaning as the basis of neurosisand argued that the male sex drive was a desire to return to the womb. Rank's therapy involved re-experiencing the trauma of birth. On a trip to the United States in 1924, Rank lectured on his own ideas as well as Freud's. Although Freud originally praised Rank's new work, soon he was attacking him, and they broke off their relationship in 1926. Rank moved his family to Paris and began spending a great deal of time in the United States, lecturing and treating patients. His new "active therapy" stressed a more equal relationship between the patient and therapist, with a focus on terminating the analysis, as opposed to the open-ended and intensive psychoanalysis of Freud. The Freudians labeled Rank as mentally ill, and he was expelled from the American Psychoa...
With the rise of Nazi Germany, Rank, a Jew, emigrated to the United States in 1935. Teaching at the Pennsylvania School of Social Work, he adopted the nickname "Huck," after his favorite American book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Rank and his wife separated in 1934. Three months before his death in New York City in 1939, from side effects of the sulfa drug he was taking for a kidney infection, Rank married Estelle Buel. Rank has never received full credit for his contributions to psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, primarily because of the attacks by Freudians. Although Rank abhorred the Nazis, in 1939 the psychologist Erich Fromm labeled Rank's "will therapy" a Nazi-style philosophy. Rank's work was ignored for years, until the 1970s when it was resurrected by the psychologists Rollo May and Carl Rogers, among others, and by writers such as Anaïs Nin. The Journal of the Otto Rank Association, with writings by Rank and his followers, was published biannually from 1966 until 19...
Otto Rank, an Austrian psychoanalyst, was the first to talk about the trauma of birth. His central theory is that being born is the first trauma humans experience. The abrupt separation from our mother and sudden exit from a protected environment to a hostile world leave a lasting impact on us.