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    What countries have a parliamentary republic?

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  2. Parliamentary republic - Wikipedia

    6 days ago · A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics.

    • Powers

      In contrast to republics operating under either the...

  3. Unitary parliamentary republic - Wikipedia

    3 days ago · A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government in which the political power is vested in and entrusted to the parliament with confidence [clarification needed] by its electorate

    Parliamentary republic adopted
    Head of state elected by
    Parliament, by majority
    Parliament, by majority
    British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
    Parliament, by majority
  4. List of countries by system of government - Wikipedia

    6 days ago · In a parliamentary republic, the head of government is selected by, or nominated by, the legislature and is also accountable to it. The head of state is ordinarily called president, and in most parliamentary republics is separate from the head of government and serves as a largely apolitical, ceremonial figure.

    Constitutional form
    Head of state
    Basis of executive legitimacy
    Presidency is independent of legislature
    Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
    Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
    Constitutional monarchy
    Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  5. Parliamentary system - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • History
    • Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages and criticisms

    A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government an

    Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system. The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon convened the three states in the Cortes of León. An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt, when ...

    A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house. Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems.

    Supporters generally claim three basic advantages for parliamentary systems: 1. Adaptability 2. Scrutiny and accountability 3. Distribution of power

    Critics of parliamentarianism, namely proponents of anti-parliamentarianism or anti-parliamentarism, generally claim these basic disadvantages for parliamentary systems: 1. Legislative flip-flopping 2. Party fragmentation

  6. Presidential system - Wikipedia

    Nov 17, 2020 · By contrast, in a parliamentary system where the often-ceremonial head of state is either a constitutional monarch or (in the case of a parliamentary republic) an experienced and respected figure, given some political emergency there is a good chance that even a ceremonial head of state will be able to use emergency reserve powers to restrain a ...

  7. Parliament of the Republic of Moldova - Wikipedia

    6 days ago · The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova is the supreme representative body of the Republic of Moldova, the only state legislative authority, being a unicameral structure composed of 101 elected deputies on lists, for a period of 4 years. Parliament is elected by universal vote, equal directly, secret and freely expressed.

  8. 議會制 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书内阁制

    Nov 14, 2020 · 議會制又稱內閣制、議會民主制(英語: Parliamentary system ),是一種政治制度,特點是「議會無上」,政府首脑(總理或首相)權力來自議會,授權有兩種途徑:第一是議會改選後的多數議席支持,第二是政府首腦贏得議會的信任投票。

  9. Nov 16, 2020 · Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. Its constitution states representative democracy as its political system.

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