Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (German: Pippin der Jüngere, French: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks from 751 until his death in 768. He was the first Carolingian to become king.
- Assumption of Power
- First Carolingian King
- Expansion of The Frankish Realm
On the death of Pepin's father, Charles Martel, in 741, power was passed down to Charles' legitimate sons, Carloman and Pepin as mayors of the palaces of Neustria and Austrasia respectively. Power may also have been intended for Charles' illegitimate son, Grifo, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum,a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal. Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorumwere the commanders of the armies of the Kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard, which Martel had begun maintaining year-around since Toulouse, in 721. Upon their assumption, Pepin and Carloman, who had not proved themselves in battle, in defense of...
Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he decided it was time to do what his father had never bothered to do, make the Carolingian name royal in law as well as fact. Pepin asked Pope Zachary who the royal ruler should be: The person with the title of King, or the person who makes the decisions as King. Since the Pope depended on the Frankish armies for his independence, and had depended on them for protection from the Lombards since the days of Charles Martel, and Pepin, as his father had, controlled those armies, the Pope's answer was determined well in advance. The Pope agreed that the de facto power was more important than the de jure power. Thus, Pepin, having obtained the support of the papacy, discouraged opposition to his house. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men (it must be noted he had a large portion of his army on hand, in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal Bull) and...
Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles(eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman. Pepin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin, whereby the Papal Stateswas founded. In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne,...
Pepin died at Saint Denis in 768, and is interred there in the basilica with his wife, Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance (of St. Denis basilica), face down, for the sins of his father, Charles Martel." Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun and maintained, the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. Pepin not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.James, Edward. The Origins of France From Clovis to the Capetians, 500-1000. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982. ISBN 9780312588625Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 9780521432948Lasko, Peter. The Kingdom of the Franks: North-West Europe Before Charlemagne. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. ISBN 9780070364998
Pepin (c. 714–68), known as Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne; he became the first king of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty on the deposition of the Merovingian Childeric III. (See also Donation of Pepin.) The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ELIZABETH KNOWLES
- Early Life
- Career and Challenges
- Major Contributions
- Legacy and Death
Pepin III, known as Pepin the Short, was born in 714 AD, the second son of Charles Martel (c. 686-741) and his wife Rotrude (?-724). Pepin was given a clerical upbringing, which he acquired from the monks at the Basilica of St. Denis. Martel who held the title Duke and Price of the Franks, as well as Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia (481-843) from 718 until his death. When the King of Francia Theuderic IV (c.712-737) died, Martel ruled as regent over the kingdom until his death, which led to Pepin and his older brother Carloman (c.711-754) succeeding their father and reigning together jointly as regents. Pepin ruled the regions of Burgundy, Neustria and Provence. Meanwhile, Carloman managed Alemannia, Austrasia, and Thuringia.
In the first few years of their joint rule, the brothers had to be vigilant as they put down various revolts led by the Alemanni, Aquitanians, Bavarians, and Saxons. They also removed their half-brother Grifo (726-753) from making any claims on a portion of the kingdom by imprisoning him into a monastery in 742. In 743, the brothers decided to end the Frankish interregnum that started with the death of Theuderic IVby making Childeric III (c.717-c.754) the King of Francia. The two brothers mostly worked together, as they took military actions in support of each other, against the aforementioned revolts unlike in many medieval instances where fraternal power-sharing ended badly. Being holy men they also both worked to continue support Saint Boniface (c.675-754), as their father had, in his mission to reform the Frankish church and evangelizing the Saxons. In 747, Carloman renounced his positions and went to Rome to retire and live a monastic life. However, some historians believed tha...
While Pepin had been anointed king in 751, he decided to add to his power in 754 with all of his potential rivals for the throne now having been taken care off. That year Pope Stephen II (?-757) traveled to Paris to anoint him as the King of the Franks in a second, lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St. Denis. He was also given the new title of Patricius Romanorum(Patrician of the Romans) and became the first known civil ruler to be crowned by a Pope. At home, Pepin reformed the legislation of the Franks and continued the holy work and reforms started by the aforementioned Saint Boniface. However, he was never truly able to quell the tireless revolts from the Bavarians and Saxons in Germany, with his successors being the ones to final subjugate them. Pepin also helped Pope Stephen II against the Lombards in Italy in the 750s and by 756 he had managed to force Aistulf to end his conquests. This led to the Donation of Pepin, where he officially conferred all the former territories tha...
Pepin is remembered as a strong supporter of the Roman church and helped the religion expand in his kingdom through missionary work. He also managed to drive the Iberian Muslims out of France and finally subdue the Aquitanians and the Basques after close to three generations of on and off fighting. He also helped to install the infrastructure of feudalism that would become a major pillar of medieval Europe. Finally, he helped his kingdom become one of the foremost powers in Europe and set the stage for what would become the Carolingian Empire (800-88). Pepin also expanded the kingdom's territory by taking back Septimania from the Umayyads. He also defeated Waifer of Aquitaine (?-768) multiple times as Pepin managed to subjugate and gain the fealty of most of the Basque and Aquitanian lords before his death in the final active years of the conflict. In 768, the 54-year-old Pepin died on his way home from one of his campaign against the Aquitanians. He was interred in the Basilica of...
- Gregory Sousa
Pippin III, also spelled Pepin, byname Pippin the Short, French Pépin le Bref, German Pippin der Kurze, (born c. 714—died September 24, 768, Saint-Denis, Neustria [now in France]), the first king of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and the father of Charlemagne.
- Marriage and Family
- See Also
The younger son of the Frankish prince Charles Martel and his wife Rotrude, Pepin's upbringing was distinguished by the ecclesiastical education he had received from the monks of St. Denis. Succeeding his father as the Mayor of the Palace in 741, Pepin reigned over Franciajointly with his elder brother Carloman. Pepin ruled in Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman established himself in Austrasia, Alemannia and Thuringia. The brothers were active in suppressing revolts led by the Bavarians, Aquitanians, Saxons, and the Alemanni in the early years of their reign. In 743, they ended the Frankish interregnum by choosing Childeric III, who was to be the last Merovingian monarch, as figurehead king of the Franks. Being well disposed towards the church and Papacy on account of their ecclesiastical upbringing, Pepin and Carloman continued their father's work in supporting Saint Boniface in reforming the Frankish church, and evangelising the Saxons. After Carloman, wh...
1st Marriage : Leutberga of the Danube
Pepin married Leutberga from the Danube region. They had five children. She was repudiated some time after the birth of Charlemagne and her children were sent to convents.
2nd Marriage : Bertrada of Laon
In 741, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. They are known to have had six children (maybe 8 per some sources), at least three of whom survived to adulthood: 1. Charles (747-818)(Charlemagne) 2. Carloman (751-771) 3. Gisela (757-810) 4. Pepin (759-761)- died young 5. Chrothais (746-)- died young, buried in Metz 6. Adelais (c749-)- died young, buried in Metz 7. unnamed mother of Chunibert daughter of Pepin - may be impossibl...
Common ancestors of Pepin the Short (714-768) and Bertrada of Laon (720-783) 1. Ansegisel (c606-bef679) 2. Arnulf of Metz (582-640) 3. Pepin of Landen (c580-640) 4. Saint Begga (615-693) 5. Saint Doda (586-612) 6. Saint Itta (-652) Noteworthy descendants include 1. Charlemagne (747-814)
- 714 Jupille, Belgium (Austrasia)
- Charles Martel (686-741)
- 24 September 768 Saint Denis
- Rotrude of Treves (690-724)
Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King of the Franks ; born 714; died at St. Denis, 24 September, 768. He was the son of Charles Martel . Pepin and his older brother Carloman were taught by the monks of St. Denis, and the ...
Charles Martel divided his realm between his sons Pepin, called Pepin the Short, and Carloman. Succeeding his father as the Mayor of the Palace in 741, Pepin reigned over Francia jointly with his elder brother Carloman. Pepin ruled in Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while Carloman established himself in Austrasia, Alemannia, and Thuringia.
After 754 AD, the policy of Pepin the Short in agreement with the new Pope Stephen II, was characterized by an interminable series of small wars aimed at stabilizing the territories threatened by the invaders and the definitive conquest of Aquitaine (768 AD).
Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.
- Charles Martel