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  1. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) also known as "Philip the Prudent" (Spanish: Felipe el Prudente) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, Portuguese: Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554 to 1558).

    • Early Life and Background
    • Revolt in The Netherlands
    • Economic Troubles
    • Philip Becomes King of Portugal
    • Turkish Threat in The Mediterranean
    • War with England
    • War with France
    • Legacy
    • Philip in Fiction
    • References

    Philip was born in Valladolid on the May 21, 1527, and was the only legitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, by his wife Isabella of Portugal. He was educated by Roman Catholic clergymen, whose influence shaped his policies as king. Philip had classic works translated into Spanish for him and was fond of music. He was close to his mother, though his father was often absent. Philip's mother died as the result of a miscarriage when he was twelve.Outside of schooling, Philip enjoyed hunting.

    The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht,passed an Oath of Abjuration of their Spanish-based king, who was also Sovereign over the Netherlands, in 1581. The Netherlands at this time had been a personal union under King Philip, since the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549; he was lord of each separate Dutch Province (for example, Duke of Guelders and Count of Holland). The rebel leader, William I, Prince of Orange ("William the Silent") was outlawed by Philip, and assassinated in 1584, by a Catholic fanatic after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed William the Silent, calling him a "pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race." Nevertheless, the Dutch forces continued to fight on, and increasingly used their substantial naval resources to plunder Spanish ships and blockade the Spanish-controlled southern provinces.

    Aside from draining state revenues for failed overseas adventurism, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain, and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline. However, Charles V had left Philip with a debt of 36 million ducats and a deficit of 1 million ducats a year. For one, far too much power was concentrated in Philip's hands. Spain was subject to separate assemblies: The Cortes in Castile along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which jealously guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited from the time they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions cumbersome to rule. While France was divided by regional states, it had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to a great deal of power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervent...

    Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugaland was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar. In 1578, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family had ended when Sebastian of Portugal died following a disastrous campaign against the Moors in Morocco.Philip spoke Portuguese mostly until his mother died. His power helped him to seize the throne, which would be kept as a personal union for sixty years. Philip famously remarked upon his acquisition of the Portuguese throne: "I inherited, I bought, I conquered," a variation on Julius Caesar and Veni, Vidi, Vici. Thus, Philip added to his possessions a vast colonial empire in Africa, Brazil, and the East Indies, seeing a flood of new revenues coming to the Habsburg crown; and the success of colonization all around his empire improved his financial position, enabling him to show greater aggression towards his enemies.

    In the early part of his reign, Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. In 1558, Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. In 1560 Philip II organized a "Holy League" between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy, and the Knig...

    Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation achieved a clear boost in 1554, when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. However, they had no children; Queen Mary, or "Bloody Mary" as she came to be known in English Protestant lore, died in 1558, before the union could revitalize the Catholic Church in England. The throne went to Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics, who did not recognize divorce and who claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great-granddaughter of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne. The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587, ended Philip's hopes of placing a Catholic on the English throne. He turned instead to more direct plans to return England to Catholicism by invasion. His opportunity came when England provided support for the Dutch rebels. In 1588, he sent a fleet of vessels, the Spani...

    From 1590 to 1598, Philip was also at war against Henry IV of France, joining with the Papacy and the Duke of Guise in the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion. Philip's interventions in the fighting—sending Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma to relieve the siege of Paris in 1590—and again into Rouen in 1592—to aid the Catholic faction, resulted in refortifying the French defenses. Henry IV of France was also able to use his propagandists to identify the Catholic faction with a foreign enemy (Philip and Spain). In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; this caused most French Catholics to rally to his side against the Spanish forces. In June 1595, the redoubtable French king defeated the Spanish-supported Holy League in Fontaine-Française in Burgundy and reconquered Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. The May 2, 1598 Treaty of Vervins was largely a restatement of the 1559 Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis; meanwhile, Henry issued the Edict of...

    Under Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power but also met its limits. Having nearly reconquered the rebellious Netherlands, Philip's unyielding attitude led to their loss, this time permanently, as his wars expanded in scope and complexity. So, in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. Early in his reign, the Dutch might have laid down their weapons if he had desisted his attempt to suppress Protestantism, but his devotion to Roman Catholicismand the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, as laid down by his father, would not permit him. He was a fervent Roman Catholic, and exhibited the typical sixteenth century disdain for religious heterodoxy. One of the long term consequences of his strivi...

    Philip II is a central character in Friedrich Schiller's play, Don Carlos, and Giuseppe Verdi's operatic adaption of the same. He is depicted more sympathetically in the opera than in the play. Philip II is one of the greatest roles for bass in opera and Verdi composed one of his greatest arias, "Ella giammai m'amó!" for the character. Charles de Coster's 1867 The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak,considered a masterpiece of nineteenth century Belgian literature, depicts the Dutch War of Independence in an extremely partisan manner, though it was an event nearly three centuries old at the time of writing. Accordingly, Philip II is depicted as a total caricature, a vicious moron with not the slightest redeeming feature—a depiction seemingly drawing on hostile Dutch and other Protestant sources of Philip's own time. Philip II is played by Jordi Molla in Shekhar Kapur's 2007 film, Elizabeth: The Golden Age. He also appears in the opening scene of the 1940 adventure film, The...

    Collin, Martin, and Geoffrey Parker. 2002. The Spanish Armada. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 1-901341-14-3.
    Hume, Martin Andrew Sharp. 1906 (2000). Philip II of Spain. London: Macmillan.
    Johonnot, James. 1887. Ten Great Events in History. New York: D. Appleton & Co. ISBN 9781406534658. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
    Kamen, Henry. 1997. Philip of Spain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300070810.
  2. Apr 02, 2014 · Synopsis. King Philip II of Spain, also known as Philip the Prudent, ruled one of the world's largest empires. His reign as Spain's king began the Golden Age, a period of great cultural growth in ...

  3. Spain - Spain - Philip II: When Charles abdicated his various lands (1555–56), Philip II (1556–98) succeeded to all his father’s dominions except Germany. His empire in Europe, now without the imperial title, was still only a loose union of independent states recognizing the same head. Philip, a great traditionalist, was not the man to inspire his different subjects with a new unifying ...

  4. King Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II) of Spain, also known as Philip the Prudent or Philip II of the House of Habsburg, was unarguably the most important ruler in Spanish history. It was under his reign that Spain reached the height of its influence and power, and also of its artistic, literary, and musical excellence.

    • King Philip II’s mother taught him. Philip was born on May 21, 1527, in Valladolid in northern Castile. He was the only son of Charles V, King of Spain and Isabella.
    • Philip II was raised up in the Royal Court of Castille. Philip was born in Castile and raised in the Castilian court. He grew up speaking Spanish, a language he strongly identified by.
    • King Philip II was said to be easy on the eyes. The King of Spain was described as a man with a slight stature and was round-faced. His eyes were pale blue and he had a protruding lower lip.
    • Despite his language classes, He only spoke Spanish. Isabella made her best to ensure that his son learnt all the languages in demand. His father was multilingual, a skill that gave him an upper hand in ruling the Empire.
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