Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called Philip the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel), was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne.
Philip IV, byname Philip the Fair, French Philippe le Bel, (born 1268, Fontainebleau, France—died November 29, 1314, Fontainebleau), king of France from 1285 to 1314 (and of Navarre, as Philip I, from 1284 to 1305, ruling jointly with his wife, Joan I of Navarre).
Aug 10, 2020 · Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Philip IV of France . Philip IV (The Fair) - Catholic Encyclopedia . Philip IV - 1268 - 1314 - templarhistory.com . Philip IV of France. House of Capet. Born: 1268 Died: 29 November 1314 . Regnal titles . Preceded by. Philip III King of France. 5 October 1285–29 November 1314 Succeeded by. Louis X of France . Preceded by
- April 08, 1268
Philip IV, also known as Philip the Fair, was the king of France from 1285 to 1314 and became the king of Navarre and the count of Champagne through his marriage to Joan I of Navarre. During his rule as the king of France, for nearly 3 decades, Philip and his advisors played a key role in transforming the nation from a feudal country to a centralized state.
- Early Life
- Pope Boniface VIII
- The Knights Templar
- Final Year
His desire to always maintain his authority led him into many conflicts. Philip IV was born in Fontainebleu, France in 1268. At the time of his birth, Philip’s father, Prince Philip, hadn’t yet ascended to the throne. However, that all changed when his father, King Louis IX, died on August 25, 1270. Shortly after Louis’s death, Philip III’s wife Isabella also died. Devastated by the deaths of both his father and wife, the king sought refuge in governing. As a consequence, Prince Philip and his siblings grew up neglected by their father. Philip’s unhappy childhood continued to get worse. In 1276, his older brother Louis allegedly died from poisoning. As the family mourned the loss of Louis, Philip became the new heir. Since Philip didn’t see much of his father, he viewed his grandfather as a surrogate father figure. As time went on, the prince became captivated with Louis IX’s saintliness. Due to his admiration, Philip viewed his grandfather as an ideal model of a king. He desired to...
In October 1285, Philip III died. Consequently, the 17-year-old prince became King Philip IV. The young king’s initial focus was on reforming his government. To ensure that laws were being followed, Philip dispatched his administrators throughout France. Despite his good intentions, the king alienated many French citizens in the process. The French didn’t appreciate Philip strictly enforcing the government’s laws since it wasn’t the normal precedent.
Until the late 1290s, Philip IV had genuinely followed Louis IX’s Christian example. The king donated to religious organizations, adhered to church policies, and considered church official’s advice. Philip also strongly supported the French church and, it in turn, supported him. However, the king refused to have anyone, including a pope, challenge his authority.
After the papacy’s move to Avignon, European Christians felt scandalized. The struggle between Philip IV and Boniface VIII had been distasteful. However, Clement V’s willing capitulation to please Philip damaged France’s reputation. Despite the damage, the French king wasn’t yet done. Instead, Philip began to focus on the Knights Templar. The Knights Templar were a military order of knights founded in 1118. Their original purpose involved protecting Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land. After the collapse of Jerusalem in 1291, the order became more of a bank. Throughout the years, the order accumulated vast amounts of wealth and land. By the early 1300’s, the Knights Templar predominantly resided in France. Originally, Philip IV approved of the Knights Templar and protected the organization’s privileges. He even entrusted them with guarding the royal treasury. However, by 1307, the relationship between king and order turned hostile. Philip owed a large debt to the Templars and cou...
After the Knights Templar fell, Philip IV gained possession of their wealth and lands. The king justified his actions by claiming the order had committed heresy and deserved to be destroyed. In turn, a weak Clement V defended Philip’s actions. During 1314, the king fell from his horse and broke his leg. The injury became infected, and Philip’s health rapidly declined. On November 26, Philip died from his wound.
Philip IV began his reign by attempting to emulate Louis IX’s example. However, his desire to always maintain his authority made him stray. Instead of seeking peace, Philip indulged in conflict. Instead of being an ally of the church, Philip sought its submission to him. By the end of his reign, Flanders had been subjugated, the papacy resided in Avignon, and the Knights Templar broken. As possible retribution for his actions, Philip was rapidly succeeded by his three sons: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV.
Bradbury, J. (2010). The Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328. London: Hambledon Continuum. Brown, E. A. R. (2020, January 1). Philip IV. Retrieved February 7, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Philip-IV-king-of-France Daugherty, G. (2019, February 21). In 1303 the French King Sent Goons to Attack and Kidnap the Pope. Retrieved February 12, 2020, from https://www.history.com/news/french-king-kidnapping-pope-philip-iv-boniface-vii
Philip IV, by his formal condemnation of the memory of Boniface VIII, appointed himself judge of the orthodoxy of the popes. It was laid down as a principle, says Geoffrey of Paris, that "the king is to submit to the spiritual power only if the pope is in the right faith."
Nov 29, 2014 · Philip IV of France was an enigma. He was tall, blonde and handsome (hence the nickname ‘Fair’) but aloof. He was born in Fontainebleau in 1268, the second son of Philip III.