Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208), was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 until his assassination in 1208. The death of his older brother Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor in 1197 made that the Hohenstaufen rule (which reached as far as the Kingdom of Sicily ), collapsed in imperial Italy and created a power vacuum in the north of the Alps .
Philip, also called Philip of Swabia, German Philipp von Schwaben, (born 1178—died June 21, 1208, Bamberg, Ger.), German Hohenstaufen king whose rivalry for the crown involved him in a decade of warfare with the Welf Otto IV.
Philip of Swabia (swā´bēə), 1176?–1208, German king (1198–1208), son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and king of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-term struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated.
- February/March 1177 Pavia, Italy
- Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy
- Speyer Cathedral
- Roman Catholic
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and king of Germany from 1198 to 1208. Read more on Wikipedia Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Philip of Swabia has received more than 166,061 page views.
- Early Life
- Struggle For The Throne
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Philip was born in or near Pavia in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, the fifth and youngest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his second wife Beatrice, daughter of Count Renaud III of Burgundy, and thereby younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip's great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138, already against the fierce resistance by the rivalling House of Welf. During the time of Philip's birth, his father Emperor Frederick was able to settle the longstanding conflict with Pope Alexander III and the Italian cities of the Lombard League by concluding the Treaty of Venice. The newborn was probably named after Frederick's valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne. Young Philip initially prepared for an ecclesiastical career, he entered the clergy of Adelberg Abbey and in April 1189 was made provost at the collegiate church of Aachen Cathedral, while his father left Germany f...
Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a very great extent, and appears to have been designated as guardian of Henry's minor son Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king. While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany. He appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henry's death, but was overtaken by events. Meanwhile, a number of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire hostile to the ruling Hohentaufen dynasty under the leadership of Prince-Archbishop Adolph of Cologne took the occasion to elect a German anti-king in the person of the Welf Otto of Brunswick, the second surviving son of the former Saxon duke Henry the Lion and a nephew of King Richard I of England. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, and after Philip had been chosen as d...
The papal support had little effect, however, and the Welfs as well as the Hohenstaufens had to assert their position by both threatening and bribing, by the display of splendour, and dynastic marriage politics. In 1199 Philip and Irene Angelina lavishly celebrated Christmas in Magdeburg–close to Otto's residence in Brunswick–in the presence of the Ascanian duke Bernard of Saxony and numerous Saxon and Thuringian nobles. The festival was rendered in an eloborated poem by Walther von der Vogelweide in order to spread the reputation of King Philip as a capable ruler. Again in Magdeburg Cathedral, Philip celebrated the elevation of Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourgon 9 September 1201. Also in 1201, Philip was visited by his cousin Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Although Boniface's exact reasons for meeting with Philip are unknown, while at Philip's court he also met Alexius Angelus, Philip's brother-in-law.Some historians have suggested that it was here that Alex...
Philip was preparing to crush the last flicker of the Welf rebellion in Brunswick-Lüneburg, when he proceeded to Bamberg, in order to participate as a guest at the wedding of his niece Countess Beatrice II of Burgundy with Duke Otto of Merania on 21 June 1208. After the ceremony, Philip retired in his rooms, where he was assaulted and murdered by the Bavarian count palatine Otto VIII. The pregnant queen Irene Angelina fled to Hohenstaufen Castlewhere she miscarried and died shortly afterwards. Otto of Wittelsbach escaped the Hohenstaufen henchmen. The motives for the murder have not been conclusively established. Allegedly the Wittelsbach scion, already known for his unstable character, had fallen into a rage when he learned of the dissolution of his betrothal to Gertrude of Silesia by her father, the Piast duke Henry I the Bearded. Duke Henry was apparently informed of the Wittelsbach's cruel tendencies and in an act of concern for his young daughter decided to terminate the marria...
Philip was first buried at Bamberg Cathedral; the Bamberg Horseman, a statue erected a few years after Philip's death, has been uncertainly identified as a representation of the murdered king. He was the first king ruling Germany to be assassinated since the era of the Merovingian dynasty, and one of only two German monarchs to be murdered; the other being the Habsburg king Albert I, who was slain by his nephew a hundred years later. After Philip's death, Otto IV quickly prevailed against the remaining Hohenstaufen supporters, was acknowledged as German monarch at an Imperial Diet in Frankfurt in November 1208 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III the next year. To make clear that he had not participated in Philip's assassination, he administered the Imperial ban to Otto of Wittelsbach and his alleged accomplices. Count Palatine Otto was killed as vogelfrei by the Imperial marshal Henry of Kalden in March 1209. However, Emperor Otto soon entered into conflict with Pope...
Philip of Swabia married Princess Irene Angelina, daughter of Emperor Isaac II Angelos on 25 May 1197.Their four daughters were: 1. Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198–1212), married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor 2. Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200–1248), married King Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia 3. Marie of Hohenstaufen (1201–1235), married Henry II, Duke of Brabant 4. Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), married King Ferdinand III of CastileAbulafia, David (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. Oxford University Press.Alemparte, Jaime Ferreiro (1986). "Acercamiento Mutuo de Espana y Alemania". In Martín, Antonio Pérez (ed.). España y Europa, un pasado jurídico común. Cometa S.A.Baldwin, Philip B. (2014). Pope Gregory X and the Crusades. The Boydell Press.Ciggaar, Krijna Nelly (1996). Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204. Brill.
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated.
Philip of Swabia (February 1177-21 June 1208) was King of the Romans from 8 March 1198 to 21 June 1208, succeeding Henry VI of Germany and preceding Otto IV of Germany.
Philip of Swabia (swā`bēə), 1176?–1208, German king (1198–1208), son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Frederick I or Frederick Barbarossa [Ital.,=red beard], c.1125–90, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90), son of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, nephew and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III.....
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