Richard was born on 8 September 1157, probably at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, England, son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.He was a younger brother of Henry the Young King and Matilda, Duchess of Saxony.
Richard I, duke of Aquitaine (from 1168) and of Poitiers (from 1172) and king of England, duke of Normandy, and count of Anjou (1189–99). His knightly manner and his prowess in the Third Crusade (1189–92) made him a popular king in his own time as well as the hero of countless romantic legends.
- Early Life & Succession
- Third Crusade
- Domestic Policies
- Campaigns in France & Death
Richard was born on 8 September 1157 CE in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, as the third son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, former wife of King Louis VII of France (r. 1137-1180 CE). Richard's education involved a good dose of chivalric medieval literaturethanks to his mother's interest in the subject. Poetry was another favourite pastime and the king composed his own poems in both French and Occitan (a French dialect commonly used in romances). The young prince was said to have been a tall, blue-eyed, handsome fellow with reddish-blonde hair and he was already noted for his courage. This was a period of troubled and complex relations between England and France, and Richard, whose family had been the principal cause, would be involved in two rebellions against his father. The first bid to topple the king came in 1173 CE when Richard, his brothers Henry and Geoffrey, the Count of Brittany (b. 1158 CE), and William the Lion of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE) all conspired to...
Richard's first priority, indeed, perhaps his only one, was to make good on his promise made in 1187 CE to 'take the cross' and help capture Jerusalem from the Muslims. The king emptied his kingdom's coffers for his mission, even striking up a deal with William the Lion - giving the Scottish king full feudal autonomy in return for cash. For a monarch who spent most of his reign outside of England, did not speak English, and recklessly spent the kingdom's wealth on foreign wars, Richard has enjoyed a remarkably favourable position in the English popular imagination ever since. The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was called by Pope Gregory VIII following the capture of Jerusalem in 1187 CE by Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). No fewer than three monarchs took up the call: Frederick I Barbarossa (King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, r. 1152-1190 CE), Philip II of France and Richard himself. With these being the three most powerful men in western Europe, the camp...
While the king was fighting abroad, English politics was left in the capable hands of Hubert Walter, who was Bishop of Salisbury in 1189 CE and was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1193 CE. Walter proved himself an able statesman and events would unravel which required exactly that at the helm of the ship of state. While captive in the Holy Roman Empire, Richard's younger brother John, conspiring with Philip II of France, made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the throne, but Walter managed to contain the usurper thanks to the help of another able if somewhat insensitive minister: he who looked after the realm's purse strings in Richard's absence, the chancellor, William Longchamp. The war was principally one of sieges and control of strategically important castles such as at Nottingham and Windsor Castlebut in the end, the crown prevailed. Richard forgave his brother his excessive ambition and even nominated him as his successor. Hubert Walter was also responsible for raising the he...
After a brief stint back in England and a second coronation in April 1194 CE at Winchester, Richard then spent much of his time on campaign in France where he defended the Angevin lands against his former Crusader ally, Philip II of France. The pair had fallen out when Richard did not marry Philip's sister Alice, despite the pair being engaged for 20 years. Richard instead had married Berengaria of Navarre (c. 1164-1230 CE) on 12 May 1191 CE, as arranged by his mother. Berengaria would be the only reigning English queen never to set foot in her own realm. The English king assembled an army to attack Philip by requiring his barons to merely supply the king with only seven knights each instead of the usual vassal fighting force. As an alternative, Richard demanded cash with which he could purchase his own mercenaries. It was an arrangement the barons were only too happy to agree to as it meant they could remain, and defend if necessary, their own castles and lands rather than abandon...
As he had no heir Richard I was succeeded by his brother John who would reign until 1216 CE. King John of England (aka John Lackland) managed to make himself one of the most unpopular kings in English history, and his oppression and military failures brought about a major uprising of barons who obliged the king to sign the Magna Cartain 1215 CE, upon which a constitution was based with the power of the monarch curbed and with the rights of the barons protected. Richard, meanwhile, gained legendary status as one of the great medieval knights and kings thanks to his daring deeds and the love and respect of his soldiers. After his death the myths only grew bigger, starting with the Anglo-Norman novel Romance of Richard Cœur de Lion published around 1250 CE. Already having proven himself as courageous, a determined foe of the Saracens and a composer of poetry to boot, Richard was the very model of the chivalrous knight and so his legend grew along those lines. Medieval artworks depicted...
- Mark Cartwright
Richard was born on 8 September 1157 in Oxford, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He possessed considerable political and military ability. However, like his brothers, he fought with his ...
Jun 15, 2017 · Richard the Lionheart was the son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and the second king in the Plantagenet line. Richard was far more interested in his holdings in France and in his Crusading endeavors than he was in governing England, where he spent about six months of his ten-year reign.
1 Early life and accession in Aquitaine1.1 Childhood1.2 Revolt against Henry II1.3 Under Henry II's reign
- Early Life and Accession in Aquitaine
- King and Crusader
- Occupation of Sicily
Childhood Richard was born on 8 September 1157, probably at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, England, son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was a younger brother of Count William IX of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Duchess Matilda of Saxony. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II, he was not expected to ascend the throne. He was also an elder brother of Duke Geoffrey II of Brittany; Queen Eleanor of Castile; Queen Joan of Sicily; and Count John of Mortain, who succeeded him as king. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Countess Marie of Champagne and Countess Alix of Blois. The oldest son of Henry II and Eleanor, William, died in 1156, before Richard's birth. Richard is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother. His father was Norman-Angevin and great-grandson of William the Conqueror. Contemporary historian Ralph of Diceto traced his family's lineage through Matilda of Scotland to the Anglo-Saxon kings of England and Alfr...
Coronation and anti-Jewish violence Richard I was officially invested as Duke of Normandy on 20 July 1189 and was crowned king in Westminster Abbey on 3 September 1189. Richard barred all Jews and women from the investiture, but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London began a massacre. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burned alive. Many Jewish homes were burned down, and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, a respected Jewish scholar. Roger of Howden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the rioting was started by the jealous and bigoted citizens, and that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return...
In September 1190 Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. After the death of King William II of Sicily his cousin Tancred had seized power and had been crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sicily, although the legal heir was William's aunt Constance, wife of the new Emperor Henry VI. Tancred had imprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did not give her the money she had inherited in William's will. When Richard arrived he demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance; she was freed on 28 September, but without the inheritance. The presence of foreign troops also caused unrest: in October, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners leave. Richard attacked Messina, capturing it on 4 October 1190. After looting and burning the city Richard established his base there, but this created tension between Richard and Philip Augustus. He remained there until Tancred finally agreed to sign a treaty on 4 March 1191. The treaty...
Richard's reputation over the years has "fluctuated wildly", according to historian John Gillingham. Richard's contemporaneous image was that of a king who was also a knight, and that was apparently the first such instance of this combination. He was known as a valiant and competent military leader and individual fighter, courageous and generous. That reputation has come down through the ages and defines the popular image of Richard. He left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits. This is reflected in Steven Runciman's final verdict of Richard I: "he was a bad son, a bad husband, and a bad king, but a gallant and splendid soldier." ("History of the Crusades" Vol. III) Meanwhile, Muslim writers during the Crusades period and after wrote of him: "Never have we had to face a bolder or more subtle opponent." Richard, however, also received negative portrayals. During his life, he was criticised by chroniclers for...
- September 08, 1157
- Private User
- Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
12 Jul 1191. Richard I of England captures Acre during the Third Crusade . 20 Aug 1191. Richard I of England orders the execution of 2,500 Muslim prisoners after the siege of Acre during the Third Crusade . 7 Sep 1191. Richard I of England defeats Saladin 's army at Arsuf during the Third Crusade . Jan 1192.
- Early Life
- Revolt Against Henry II
- Shifting Alliances
- Victory and Becoming King
- The Crusade Begins
- Shifting Alliances in The Holy Land
- Battling Saladin
- Returning to England
Born September 8, 1157, Richard the Lionheart was the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England. Often believed to have been the favorite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard had three older siblings, William (who died in infancy), Henry, and Matilda, as well as four younger: Geoffrey, Lenora, Joan, and John. As with many English rulers of the Plantagenet line, Richard was essentially French and his focus tended to lean toward the family's lands in France rather than England. Following the separation of his parents in 1167, Richard was invested duchy of Aquitaine.
Well-educated and of dashing appearance, Richard quickly demonstrated skill in military matters and worked to enforce his father's rule in the French lands. In 1174, encouraged by their mother, Richard and his brothers Henry (the Young King) and Geoffrey (Duke of Brittany) rebelled against their father's rule. Responding quickly, Henry II was able to crush this revolt and captured Eleanor. With his brothers defeated, Richard submitted to his father's will and asked for forgiveness. His greater ambitions checked, Richard turned his focus to maintaining his rule over Aquitaine and controlling his nobles.
Ruling with an iron fist, Richard was forced to put down major revolts in 1179 and 1181–1182. During this time, tensions again rose between Richard and his father when the latter demanded that his son pay homage to his older brother Henry. Refusing, Richard was soon attacked by Henry the Young King and Geoffrey in 1183. Confronted by this invasion and a revolt of his own barons, Richard was able to skillfully turn back these attacks. Following the death of Henry the Young King in June 1183, Richard's father King Henry II ordered John to continue the campaign. Seeking aid, Richard formed an alliance with King Philip II of France in 1187. In return for Philip's assistance, Richard ceded his rights to Normandy and Anjou. That summer, upon hearing of the Christian defeat at the Battle of Hattin, Richard took the cross at Tours with other members of the French nobility.
In 1189, Richard and Philip's forces united against Henry II and won a victory at Ballans in July. Meeting with Richard, Henry agreed to name him as his heir. Two days later, Henry died and Richard ascended to the English throne. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey in September 1189. Following his coronation, a rash of anti-Semitic violence swept through the country as Jews had been barred from the ceremony. Punishing the perpetrators, Richard immediately began making plans to go on a crusade to the Holy Land. Going to extremes to raise money for the army, he finally was able to assemble a force of around 8,000 men. After making preparations for the protection of his realm in his absence, Richard and his army departed in the summer of 1190. Dubbed the Third Crusade, Richard planned to campaign in conjunction with Philip II and Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire.
Rendezvousing with Philip at Sicily, Richard aided in settling a succession dispute on the island, which involved his sister Joan, and conducted a brief campaign against Messina. During this time, he proclaimed his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, to be his heir, leading his brother John to start planning a revolt at home. Moving on, Richard landed in Cyprus to rescue his mother and his future bride, Berengaria of Navarre. Defeating the island's despot, Isaac Komnenos, he completed his conquest and married Berengariaon May 12, 1191. Pressing on, he landed in the Holy Land at Acre on June 8.
Arriving in the Holy Land, Richard gave his support to Guy of Lusignan, who was fighting a challenge from Conrad of Montferrat for the kingship of Jerusalem. Conrad was in turn backed by Philip and Duke Leopold V of Austria. Putting aside their differences, the Crusaders captured Acrethat summer. After taking the city, problems again arose as Richard contested Leopold's place in the Crusade. Though not a king, Leopold had ascended to the command of Imperial forces in the Holy Land after the death of Frederick Barbarossa in 1190. After Richard's men pulled down Leopold's banner at Acre, the Austrian departed and returned home in anger. Soon after, Richard and Philip began arguing in regard to the status of Cyprus and the kingship of Jerusalem. In poor health, Philip elected to return to France leaving Richard without allies to face Saladin's Muslim forces.
Pushing south, Richard defeated Saladin at Arsufon September 7, 1191, and then attempted to open peace negotiations. Initially rebuffed by Saladin, Richard spent the early months of 1192 refortifying Ascalon. As the year wore on, both Richard and Saladin's positions began to weaken and the two men entered into negotiations. Knowing that he could not hold Jerusalem if he took it and that John and Philip were plotting against him at home, Richard agreed to raze walls at Ascalon in exchange for a three-year truce and Christian access to Jerusalem. After the agreement was signed on September 2, 1192, Richard departed for home.
Shipwrecked en route to England, Richard was forced to travel overland and was captured by Leopold in December. Imprisoned first in Dürnstein and then at Trifels Castle in the Palatinate, Richard was largely kept in comfortable captivity. For his release, the Holy Roman EmperorHenry VI demanded 150,000 marks. While Eleanor of Aquitaine worked to raise the money for his release, John and Philip offered Henry VI 80,000 marks to hold Richard until at least Michaelmas 1194. Refusing, the emperor accepted the ransom and released Richard on February 4, 1194. Returning to England, Richard quickly forced John to submit to his will but did name his brother as his heir, supplanting his nephew Arthur. With the situation in England in hand, Richard returned to France to deal with Philip.
Constructing an alliance against his former friend, Richard won several victories over the French during the next five years. In March 1199, Richard laid siege to the small castle of Chalus-Chabrol. On the night of March 25, while walking along the siege lines, he was struck in the left shoulder by an arrow. Unable to remove it himself, he summoned a surgeon who took out the arrow but severely worsened the wound in the process. Shortly thereafter, gangrene set in and the king died in his mother's arms on April 6, 1199.
Richard has a mixed legacy, as some historians point to his military skill and the daring necessary to go on crusade, while others emphasize his cruelty and neglect for his realm. Though king for 10 years, he only spent around six months in England and the remainder of his reign in his French lands or abroad. He was succeeded by his brother John.
Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, was the king of England from 1189 to 1199. He was reputed to be a great military leader and warrior. He was just 16 when he took command of his own army while joining his brothers in a rebellion against his father King Henry II of England. He not only possessed considerable political and military ...
Apr 06, 2020 · Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death. He was the second king of the House of Plantagenet. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times…