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  1. Richard II of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

    Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward, Prince of Wales, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III. Upon the death of Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.

  2. Richard II of England - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

    Richard II of England From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Richard II (6 January 1367–14 February 1400) was the son of Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan of Kent, "The Fair Maid of Kent". He was born in Bordeaux, and became his father's successor when his elder brother died in infancy.

  3. Richard II, Duke of Normandy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II,_Duke_of_Normandy

    Richard II, Duke of Normandy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Richard II (23 August 963 – 28 August 1026), called the Good (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora. He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy.

  4. Richard II (play) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_(play)

    The Life and Death of King Richard the Second, commonly called Richard II, is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in approximately 1595. It is based on the life of King Richard II of England and is the first part of a tetralogy, referred to by some scholars as the Henriad, followed by three plays concerning Richard's successors: Henry IV, Part 1; Henry IV, Part 2; and Henry V. Although the First Folio edition of Shakespeare's works lists the play as a history play

    • Early Life
    • Peasants' Revolt
    • Coming of Age
    • First Crisis of 1386–88
    • A Fragile Peace
    • Second Crisis of 1397–99
    • Overthrow and Death
    • Court Culture
    • Patronage and The Arts
    • Character and Assessment

    Richard of Bor­deaux was the younger son of Ed­ward, the Black Prince, and Joan of Kent. Ed­ward, heir ap­par­ent to the throne of Eng­land, had dis­tin­guished him­self as a mil­i­tary com­man­der in the early phases of the Hun­dred Years' War, par­tic­u­larly in the Bat­tle of Poitiers in 1356. After fur­ther mil­i­tary ad­ven­tures, how­ever, he con­tracted dysen­tery in Spain in 1370. He never fully re­cov­ered and had to re­turn to Eng­land the next year.Joan of Kent had been at the cen­tre of a mar­riage dis­pute be­tween Thomas Hol­land, Earl of Kent, and William Mon­ta­cute, 2nd Earl of Sal­is­bury, from which Hol­land emerged vic­to­ri­ous. Less than a year after Hol­land's death in 1360, Joan mar­ried Prince Ed­ward. Since Joan was a grand­daugh­ter of King Ed­ward I and a first cousin of her fa­ther-in-law, King Ed­ward III, the mar­riage re­quired papal ap­proval. Richard was born at the Arch­bishop's Palace, Bor­deaux, in the Eng­lish prin­ci­pal­ity of Aquitaine, on 6...

    Whereas the poll tax of 1381 was the spark of the Peas­ants' Re­volt, the root of the con­flict lay in ten­sions be­tween peas­ants and landown­ers pre­cip­i­tated by the eco­nomic and de­mo­graphic con­se­quences of the Black Death and sub­se­quent out­breaks of the plague. The re­bel­lion started in Kent and Essex in late May, and on 12 June, bands of peas­ants gath­ered at Black­heath near Lon­don under the lead­ers Wat Tyler, John Ball, and Jack Straw. John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace was burnt down. The Arch­bishop of Can­ter­bury, Simon Sud­bury, who was also Lord Chan­cel­lor, and the king's Lord High Trea­surer, Robert Hales, were both killed by the rebels, who were de­mand­ing the com­plete abo­li­tion of serf­dom. The king, shel­tered within the Tower of Lon­donwith his coun­cil­lors, agreed that the Crown did not have the forces to dis­perse the rebels and that the only fea­si­ble op­tion was to negotiate. It is un­clear how much Richard, who was still only four­teen years ol...

    It is only with the Peas­ants' Re­volt that Richard starts to emerge clearly in the an­nals. One of his first sig­nif­i­cant acts after the re­bel­lion was to marry Anne of Bo­hemia, daugh­ter of the Holy Roman Em­peror (King of Bo­hemia Charles IV) and his wife Elis­a­beth of Pomera­nia, on 20 Jan­u­ary 1382. The mar­riage had diplo­matic sig­nif­i­cance; in the di­vi­sion of Eu­rope caused by the West­ern Schism, Bo­hemia and the Em­pire were seen as po­ten­tial al­lies against France in the on­go­ing Hun­dred Years' War.[c] Nonethe­less, the mar­riage was not pop­u­lar in Eng­land. De­spite great sums of money awarded to the Em­pire, the po­lit­i­cal al­liance never re­sulted in any mil­i­tary victories.Fur­ther­more, the mar­riage was child­less. Anne died from plague in 1394, greatly mourned by her husband. Michael de la Pole had been in­stru­men­tal in the mar­riage negotiations; he had the king's con­fi­dence and grad­u­ally be­came more in­volved at court and in gov­ern­ment...

    The threat of a French in­va­sion did not sub­side, but in­stead grew stronger into 1386. At the par­lia­ment of Oc­to­ber that year, Michael de la Pole – in his ca­pac­ity of chan­cel­lor – re­quested tax­a­tion of an un­prece­dented level for the de­fence of the realm. Rather than con­sent­ing, the par­lia­ment re­sponded by re­fus­ing to con­sider any re­quest until the chan­cel­lor was removed. The par­lia­ment (later known as the Won­der­ful Par­lia­ment) was pre­sum­ably work­ing with the sup­port of Glouces­ter and Arundel. The king fa­mously re­sponded that he would not dis­miss as much as a scul­lion from his kitchen at par­lia­ment's request. Only when threat­ened with de­po­si­tion was Richard forced to give in and let de la Pole go.A com­mis­sion was set up to re­view and con­trol royal fi­nances for a year. Richard was deeply per­turbed by this af­front to his royal pre­rog­a­tive, and from Feb­ru­ary to No­vem­ber 1387 went on a "gy­ra­tion" (tour) of the coun­try to m...

    Richard grad­u­ally re-es­tab­lished royal au­thor­ity in the months after the de­lib­er­a­tions of the Mer­ci­less Par­lia­ment. The ag­gres­sive for­eign pol­icy of the Lords Ap­pel­lant failed when their ef­forts to build a wide, anti-French coali­tion came to noth­ing, and the north of Eng­land fell vic­tim to a Scot­tish in­cur­sion. Richard was now over twenty-one years old and could with con­fi­dence claim the right to gov­ern in his own name. Fur­ther­more, John of Gaunt re­turned to Eng­land in 1389 and set­tled his dif­fer­ences with the king, after which the old states­man acted as a mod­er­at­ing in­flu­ence on Eng­lish politics. Richard as­sumed full con­trol of the gov­ern­ment on 3 May 1389, claim­ing that the dif­fi­cul­ties of the past years had been due solely to bad coun­cil­lors. He out­lined a for­eign pol­icy that re­versed the ac­tions of the ap­pel­lants by seek­ing peace and rec­on­cil­i­a­tion with France, and promised to lessen the bur­den of tax­a­tion on...

    The pe­riod that his­to­ri­ans refer to as the "tyranny" of Richard II began to­wards the end of the 1390s. The king had Glouces­ter, Arun­del and War­wick ar­rested in July 1397. The tim­ing of these ar­rests and Richard's mo­ti­va­tion are not en­tirely clear. Al­though one chron­i­cle sug­gested that a plot was being planned against the king, there is no ev­i­dence that this was the case. It is more likely that Richard had sim­ply come to feel strong enough to safely re­tal­i­ate against these three men for their role in events of 1386–88 and elim­i­nate them as threats to his power. Arun­del was the first of the three to be brought to trial, at the par­lia­ment of Sep­tem­ber 1397. After a heated quar­rel with the king, he was con­demned and executed. Glouces­ter was being held pris­oner by the Earl of Not­ting­ham at Calais while await­ing his trial. As the time for the trial drew near, Not­ting­ham brought news that Glouces­ter was dead. It is thought likely that the king had...

    In June 1399, Louis, Duke of Orléans, gained con­trol of the court of the in­sane Charles VI of France. The pol­icy of rap­proche­ment with the Eng­lish crown did not suit Louis's po­lit­i­cal am­bi­tions, and for this rea­son he found it op­por­tune to allow Henry to leave for England. With a small group of fol­low­ers, Bol­ing­broke landed at Raven­spur in York­shire to­wards the end of June 1399. Men from all over the coun­try soon ral­lied around the duke. Meet­ing with Henry Percy, Earl of Northum­ber­land, who had his own mis­giv­ings about the king, Bol­ing­broke in­sisted that his only ob­ject was to re­gain his own pat­ri­mony. Percy took him at his word and de­clined to interfere. The king had taken most of his house­hold knights and the loyal mem­bers of his no­bil­ity with him to Ire­land, so Henry ex­pe­ri­enced lit­tle re­sis­tance as he moved south. Ed­mund of Lan­g­ley, Duke of York, who was act­ing as Keeper of the Realm, had lit­tle choice but to side with Bolingbr...

    In the last years of Richard's reign, and par­tic­u­larly in the months after the sup­pres­sion of the ap­pel­lants in 1397, the king en­joyed a vir­tual mo­nop­oly on power in the coun­try, a rel­a­tively un­com­mon sit­u­a­tion in me­dieval England. In this pe­riod a par­tic­u­lar court cul­ture was al­lowed to emerge, one that dif­fered sharply from that of ear­lier times. A new form of ad­dress de­vel­oped; where the king pre­vi­ously had been ad­dressed sim­ply as "high­ness", now "royal majesty", or "high majesty" were often used. It was said that on solemn fes­ti­vals Richard would sit on his throne in the royal hall for hours with­out speak­ing, and any­one on whom his eyes fell had to bow his knees to the king.The in­spi­ra­tion for this new sump­tu­ous­ness and em­pha­sis on dig­nity came from the courts on the con­ti­nent, not only the French and Bo­hemian courts that had been the homes of Richard's two wives, but also the court that the Black Prince had main­tained while...

    As part of Richard's pro­gramme of as­sert­ing his au­thor­ity, he also tried to cul­ti­vate the royal image. Un­like any other Eng­lish king be­fore him, he had him­self por­trayed in panel paint­ings of el­e­vated majesty, of which two sur­vive: the over life-size West­min­ster Abbey por­trait of the king (c. 1390, see top of page), and the Wilton Dip­tych (1394–99), a portable work prob­a­bly in­tended to ac­com­pany Richard on his Irish campaign. It is one of the few sur­viv­ing Eng­lish ex­am­ples of the courtly In­ter­na­tional Gothic style of paint­ing that was de­vel­oped in the courts of the Con­ti­nent, es­pe­cially Prague and Paris. Richard's ex­pen­di­ture on jew­ellery, rich tex­tiles and met­al­work was far higher than on paint­ings, but as with his il­lu­mi­nated man­u­scripts, there are hardly any sur­viv­ing works that can be con­nected with him, ex­cept for a crown, "one of the finest achieve­ments of the Gothic gold­smith", that prob­a­bly be­longed to Anne. Among...

    Con­tem­po­rary writ­ers, even those less sym­pa­thetic to the king, agreed that Richard was a "most beau­ti­ful king", though with a "face which was white, rounded and fem­i­nine", im­ply­ing he lacked manliness. He was ath­letic and tall; when his tomb was opened in 1871 he was found to be six feet tall. He was also in­tel­li­gent and well read, and when ag­i­tated he had a ten­dency to stammer. While the West­min­ster Abbey por­trait prob­a­bly shows a good sim­i­lar­ity of the king, the Wilton Dip­tych por­trays the king as sig­nif­i­cantly younger than he was at the time; it must be as­sumed that he had a beard by this point. Re­li­giously, he was or­tho­dox, and par­tic­u­larly to­wards the end of his reign he be­came a strong op­po­nent of the Lol­lard heresy. He was par­tic­u­larly de­voted to the cult of Ed­ward the Con­fes­sor, and around 1395 he had his own coat of arms im­paled with the myth­i­cal arms of the Confessor. Though not a war­rior king like his grand­fa­ther,...

  5. List of earls in the reign of Richard II of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earls_in_the_reign...

    The following individuals were Earls (suo jure or jure uxoris) or Countesses during the reign of King Richard II of England who reigned from 1377 to 1399.The period of tenure as Earl or Countess is given after the name and title(s) of each individual, including any period of minority.

  6. William II of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_II_of_England

    He was the third of four sons born to William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, the eldest being Robert Curthose, the second Richard, and the youngest Henry. Richard died around 1075 while hunting in the New Forest. William succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death in 1087, but Robert inherited Normandy.

  7. Richard III of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

    Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in 1154. The last legitimate male Plantagenet, Richard's nephew Edward, Earl of Warwick (son of his brother George, Duke of Clarence), was executed by Henry VII in 1499.

  8. Henry II of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England

    Richard refused to give up Aquitaine; he was deeply attached to the duchy, and had no desire to exchange this role for the meaningless one of being the junior King of England. Henry was furious, and ordered John and Geoffrey to march south and retake the duchy by force. [319]

  9. John, King of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

    Henry II moved in support of Richard, and Henry the Young King died from dysentery at the end of the campaign. With his primary heir dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made King of England, albeit without any actual power until the death of his father; Geoffrey would retain Brittany; and John would now become the Duke of Aquitaine in place of Richard. [26]

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