Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum which had begun after the death of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II in 1250.
Rudolf I, also called Rudolf of Habsburg, (born May 1, 1218, Limburg-im-Breisgau [Germany]—died July 15, 1291, Speyer), first German king of the Habsburg dynasty. Read More on This Topic Germany: Rudolf of Habsburg
Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf I of Germany (1 May 1218-15 July 1291) was King of the Romans from 29 September 1273 to 15 July 1291, succeeding Richard of Germany and preceding Adolf of Germany.
- Early Years
- Military Service and Crusader
- Government, Law and War
- Later Reign
Rudolf I was born on 1 May 1226 at Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region of present-day southwestern Germany. He was the eldest son of Emperor Frederick II and Matilda of Swabia. By his father, Rudolf was the grandson of the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI and great-grandson of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He lived in Southern Italy until 1235, when he first visited the Kingdom of Germany. During this period his kingdom of Jerusalem, ruled by his father as regent through proxies, was racked by the civil War of the Lombardsuntil Rudolf declared his majority and his father's regency lost its validity.
Peace and Second Barons' War
1. Main article: Second Barons' War After Frederick II made peace with King Christopher I of Denmark in city of Luberk on 1258. Peace was restored and city of Lübeck was still part of the Empire, in fact that it was almost taken by Danish in the 1256 siege and were defeated. By the following year on 29 May 1259,King Christopher died after drinking poisoned communion wine from the hands of abbot Arnfast of Ryd Abbey in revenge for his mistreatment of Archbishop Erlendsen and the king's oppress...
Rudolf I was crowned on 1 October 1260 in Rome.
Becoming the King of Italy
1. Main article: Wars of the Lombardy Crown
War with Ottokar II of Bohemia
In November 1274, the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg decided that all Crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognising the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia together with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Mar...
Bolesław V's death and Henryk IV Cooperation
Upon Bolesław V the Chaste's death on 7 December 1279, without any issue. Bolesław V's successor was Henryk IV Probus, which both Conrad III and Henryk IV were personal relationships and alliance with each other on 3 January 1280. Upon Henry IV's succession was marked as the first King in Poland. Both the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Poland becomes alliance once again and resigned the an alliance treaty and remarked the 350-years. Conrad III, Henryk IV and Ladislaus IV of Hungary sign...
Imperial Civil War
1. Main article: War of the Imperial Crown After Conrad and his father Charles IV defeated Frederick in 1264 Civil war, which forced Frederick into exile. Frederick made a comeback in the Holy Roman Empire in 1279, five years after Conrad's father death in 1274. Frederick's legitimate claim to the Imperial throne since 1264. Both Conrad and his father are pro-peace monarchs, while Frederick was pro-war and wants to conqueror. Frederick was also made allies with Conrad's rival the Kingdom of P...
But Michael had not been working upon the military front alone. Many Ghibelline officials had fled the Kingdom of Sicily to the court of Peter III of Aragon, who had married Constance, the daughter and heir of Manfred. Manfred's former chancellor, John of Procida, had arranged contact between Michael, Peter and the refugees at his court, and conspirators on the island of Sicily itself. Peter began to assemble a fleet at Barcelona, ostensibly for another Crusade to Tunis. In fact, the master-p...
Sicilian Vespers and aftermath
1. Main articles: Sicilian Vespers and War of the Sicilian Vespers The rising had its origin in the struggle of investiture between the Pope and the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors for control over Italy, especially the Church's private demesne known as the Papal States. These lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicilyin the south; the Hohenstaufen also at the time ruled Germany. In 1240 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared hi...
A generally acknowledged king had to remedy the lack of peace and justice perceived by contemporaries. The Reich administration was reorganized in Franconia. At the district Court Rothenburg, the records were recorded in the court books in 1274. They are among the oldest of their kind. Conrad began a royal Land Peace implementation, which was initially limited to regional and temporary agreements. In 1276, a country confined to Austria was issued peace. There followed in 1281 land peace for t...
Returned to Nuremberg and War with Aragon
Despite his retreat into Calabria, Charles remained in a strong position. His nephew, Philip III of France, was devoted to him and Pope Martin regarded the rebellion as an affront both to French interests and his own rights as suzerain of the kingdom. Both sides temporized; the expense of a long war might be disastrous for both, and Peter and Charles arranged for a judicial duel, with a hundred knights apiece, on 1 June 1283 at Bordeaux. Skirmishes and raids continued to occur: in January 128...
- Early Life
- Rise to Power
- King of Germany
- Family and Children
Rudolf was the son of Count Albert IV of Habsburg and Hedwig, daughter of Count Ulrich of Kyburg, and was born at Limburg Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region. At his father's death in 1239, he inherited large estates from him around the ancestral seat of Habsburg Castle in the Aargau region of present-day Switzerland as well as in Alsace. In 1245 Rudolf married Gertrude, daughter of Count Burkhard III of Hohenberg. As a result, he became an important vassal in Swabia, the former Alemannic German stem duchy. Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, and his loyalty to Frederick and his son, King Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254, he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV as a supporter of King Conrad, due to ongoing political conflicts between the Emperor, who held the Kingdom of Sicily and wanted to reestablish his power in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, especially in the...
The disorder in Germany during the interregnum after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty afforded an opportunity for Count Rudolf to increase his possessions. His wife was a Hohenberg heiress; and on the death of his childless maternal uncle, Count Hartmann IV of Kyburg in 1264, he also seized his valuable estates. Successful feuds with the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbotsand others. These various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolf the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany (where the tribal Duchy of Swabia had disintegrated, leaving room for its vassals to become quite independent) when, in the autumn of 1273, the prince-electors met to choose a king after Richard of Cornwall had died in England in April 1272. Rudolf's election in Frankfurt on 1 October 1273, when he was 55 years old, was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-la...
Rudolf was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolf renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, in spite of Ottokar II of Bohemia's protests, not only recognised Rudolf himself, but persuaded King Alfonso X of Castile (another grandson of Philip of Swabia), who had been chosen German (anti-)king in 1257 as the successor to Count William II of Holland, to do the same. Thus, Rudolf surpassed the two heirs of the Hohenstaufen dynasty that he had earlier served so loyally. In November 1274 it was decided by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognising the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first...
Rudolf died in Speyer on 15 July 1291, and was buried in the Speyer Cathedral. Although he had a large family, he was survived by only one son, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I. Most of his daughters outlived him, apart from Katharinawho had died in 1282 during childbirth and Hedwig who had died in 1285/6. Rudolf's reign is most memorable for his establishment of the House of Habsburg as a powerful dynasty in the southeastern parts of the realm. In the other territories, the centuries-long decline of the Imperial authority since the days of the Investiture Controversycontinued, and the princes were largely left to their own devices. In the Divine Comedy, Dante finds Rudolf sitting outside the gates of Purgatory with his contemporaries, and berates him as "he who neglected that which he ought to have done".[clarification needed]
Rudolf was married twice. First, in 1245, to Gertrude of Hohenberg and second, in 1284, to Isabelle of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy.All children were from the first marriage. 1. Matilda (ca. 1251/53, Rheinfelden – 23 December 1304, Munich), married 1273 in Aachen to Louis II, Duke of Bavaria and became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. 2. Albert I of Germany (July 1255 – 1 May 1308), Duke of Austria and also of Styria. 3. Catherine (1256 – 4 April 1282, Landshut), married 1279 in Vienna to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria who later (after her death) became the disputed King Bela V of Hungaryand left no surviving issue. 4. Agnes (ca. 1257 – 11 October 1322, Wittenberg), married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxony and became the mother of Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg. 5. Hedwig (d. 1285/86), married 1270 in Vienna to Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedeland left no issue. 6. Clementia (ca. 1262 – after 7 February 1293...
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg, Rudolf von Habsburg, was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and was elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1273 until his death. He takes a cruzifix Instead of the missing scepter ID: H8WF4T (RF)
Rudolf I of Germany King of the Romans Desc: Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg, was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Mar 24, 2020 · Rudolf of Rheinfelden (German: Rudolf von Rheinfelden; c. 1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia (1057–1079) and German antiking (1077–1080).
Rudolf of Rheinfelden (c. 1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. Initially a follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV, his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy.
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