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  1. 1 day ago · The ransom of John II of France was an event during the Hundred Years War, between France and England. King John was captured by the English during the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, and held for ransom by the English crown. Finally settled in the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360, the ransom of John II had serious consequences for the ongoing ...

  2. 1 day ago · Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1272 to 1307. [1] Concurrently, he ruled the duchies of Aquitaine and Gascony as a vassal of the French king. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as the Lord Edward. [2]

  3. 1 day ago · Francis II ( French: François II; 19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death in 1560. He ascended the throne of France at age 15 after the accidental death of his father, Henry II, in 1559.

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    Katherine's father was Paon de Roet, a herald and, later, knight (who was "probably christened as Gilles"), who came to England in the entourage of Philippa of Hainaut, who married King Edward III. Its origin is not documented. Payne's family nickname was Roe (French: Roët). On this basis, it has been suggested that he was related to the powerful f...

    Birth and early years

    Katherine's year of birth is not documented. In 1631, John Weever claimed that she was the eldest of Paon de Roet's daughters, but in this case she would have been at least 28 years old at the time of her first marriage, and the girls at that time married at a much younger age. Alison Weir believes that Weever did not know about the existence of Elizabeth de Roet, and of the other two daughters, Katherine must be the eldest. The author of the article of Katherine Swynford in the Oxford Dictio...

    First marriage

    In the 1360s, Katherine was in the service of Blanche of Lancaster, who by that time had become the wife of John of Gaunt. Jean Froissart mentions that Katherine was in the service of Blanche's family in her youth, but does not mention how old she was then. Gaunt's wife had her own household, independent of her husband, which had its own staff of officers, servants and ladies. Although the first record of Katherine in a new capacity refers to 24 January 1365, when she is mentioned as a servan...

    Mistress of the Duke of Lancaster

    Katherine's position after the death of her husband was not the best, since his financial condition was poor, and she had several small children to take care. But the Duke of Lancaster came to her aid. Although no documentary evidence of CKatherine's presence in the household of the new Duchess before March 1373 has survived, there are facts that, according to Alison Weir, indicate that John of Gaunt accepted Katherine into the service of his new wife, possibly in the same quality, as with th...

    After the ascension to the English throne of John of Gaunt's heir Henry IV, Katherine Swynford's children from John of Gaunt played a prominent role in English politics. On 9 February 1407, the King confirmed the legitimation of his half-sibilings the Beauforts, but specifically stipulated by a clause ('excepta dignitate regali') that they did not ...

    An epitaph in John of Gaunt's tomb, destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, described Katherine as "extraordinarily beautiful and feminine". At the same time, the epitaph itself was created during the restoration of the tomb by King Henry VII, a descendant of Katherine and John of Gaunt, who sought to restore the good reputation of his ances...

    The monastic chroniclers, who were shocked by John of Gaunt's association with Katherine Swynford, mostly criticized her harshly. That being said, neither Thomas Walsingham nor the author of the Anonymous Chronicle likely encountered her personally. At the same time, the chronicler Henry of Knighton was a monk at Leicester Abbeywho was patronized b...

    The coat of arms of Katherine Swynford was three gold wheels on a red field, however, judging by the heraldic emblems on the vestments given to her by Lincoln Cathedral, her coat of arms until 1396, when she married John of Gaunt, had three simple silver wheels; she probably inherited this coat of arms from her father. After her marriage with the D...

    Anil de Silva, author of a study on John of Gaunt, believes that Katherine could be the prototype for the beautiful Virginia, the heroine of "The Physician's Tale", which is part of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. During the Wars of the Roses in the 1470s, the exiled Henry, Earl of Richmond, whose mother belonged to the House of Beaufort, ...

    Katherine's children by Sir Hugh Swynford were: 1. Blanche Swynford (ca. 1363 – ca. 1375). 2. (?) Margaret Swynford (ca. 1364 – ?), a nun at Barking Abbeyin 1377. 3. (?) Dorothy Swynford (ca. 1366 – ?), married Thomas Thymelby of Pulham near Horncastle (died 1390), Sheriff of Lincolnshirein 1380. 4. Sir Thomas [II] Swynford (4 February 1367 – 2 Apr...

    Armitage-Smith, Sydney (1905). John of Gaunt: King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, Seneschal of England. New York: Charles Scribner's So...
    Kelley, David H; Stone; Don C; & Dearborn, David C, "Among the Royal Servants: Welby, Browne, Quarles and Related Families", Foundations(Foundation for Medieval Genealogy), Vol. 3, No. 4
    Lucraft, Jeannette (2006). Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-750-93261-5.
    Norwich, John (2012). History of England and Shakespeare's kings. Translated by I. V. Lobanova (to Russian). Moscow: AST. ISBN 978-5-271-43630-7.
  4. 1 day ago · King of Englandand Ireland (jure uxoris) Reign 25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558 Predecessor Mary I(as sole monarch) Successor Elizabeth I Co-monarch Mary I Lord of the Netherlands Duke of Burgundy Reign 25 October 1555 – 13 September 1598 Predecessor Charles I Successor Philip III Governors See list Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy(1555-1559)

  5. Maria Teresa was born in Kleinheubach, Kingdom of Bavaria as the second daughter of Miguel I of Portugal and Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg. [1] Her father became king of Portugal in 1828 after deposing his niece Queen Maria II. He reigned until 1834 when Maria II of Portugal was restored and Miguel was forced into exile.

  6. Zita of Bourbon-Parma ( Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Charles, the last monarch of Austria-Hungary. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, in addition to other titles. She has been declared Servant of God by ...

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