Mst. KHATUN, Doctoral Student | Cited by 23 | of The University of Tokyo, Bunkyō-ku (Todai) | Read 2 publications | Contact Mst. KHATUN
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ᠬᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin. He was the grandson of Tolui and reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Tekuder.
- Early Life
- Bid For The Throne
- Foreign Relations
Arghun was born to Abaqa Khan and his Öngüd, possibly Christian concubine Qaitmish egechi in 8 March 1259 (although Rashid al-Din states it was in 1262, which is unlikely) near Baylaqan. He grew up in Khorasan under care of Sartaq Noyan (from Jalair tribe) who was his military commander of encampment and Jochigan Noyan (from Bargut tribe) who was his atabeg. He commanded an army at the age of 20 against Negudaris. He left his father's encampment on 14 July 1279 for Seistan where he captured Öljai Buqa (son of Mubarakshah). After Abaqa's death in 1282, he was talked out of running against his uncle Ahmad Tekuder in the kurultai. Tekuder was duly chosen as sultan. He is also known as Sultan Ahmad.
Tekuder's election brought Juvayni brothers to power, who were accused of charges of embezzlement before. However Arghun believed Juvayni brothers were responsible for his father's death by poisoning. He came to Baghdad to spend winter of 1282-1283 and restarted the investigation on embezzlement accusation which may have caused Ata Malik's stroke on 5 March 1283. His hatred grew upon hearing rumors that Shams al-Din Juvayni sent someone to poison him. Another cause of friction was Tekuder's order of arrest of Malik Fakhr ud-Din, governor of Ray, whom Arghun appointed. Tekuder on the other hand began to be suspicious of his half-brother Qonqurtai and Arghun's potential alliance. He sent military contingents commanded by Prince Jushkab, Uruq and Qurumushi (son of Hinduqur) to station in Diyar Bakr, so Qonqurtai and Arghun wouldn't be connected. Qonqurtai was accused of conspiracy and was arrested by Tegüder's son-in-law, Alinaq - the viceroy of Georgia on 17 January 1284 and was execu...
Arghun was informally enthroned on 11 August 1284 following Tekuder's execution. A series of appointments came after coronation, as was custom - His cousins Jushkab (son of Jumghur) and Baydu were assigned to viceroyalty of Baghdad, Buqa's brother Aruq as his emir; while his brother Gaykhatu and uncle Hulachu were assigned to viceroyalty of Anatolia, Khorasan being assigned to his son Ghazan and his cousin Kingshu with Nawruz being their emir. Buqa, to whom he owed his throne was also awarded with dual office of sahib-i divan and amir al-umara, combining both military and civil administration on his hands. Shams al-Din Juvayni was among the executed people as Arghun tried to avenge his father's supposed murder. The official approval by Kublai came only 23 February 1286, who not only confirmed Arghun's position as ilkhan, but also Buqa's new title - chingsang (Chinese: 丞相; lit.'Chancellor'). Following this, Arghun had a second, this time official coronation ceremony on 7 April 1286.
Relations with Golden Horde
As his predecessor, Arghun often clashed with Golden Horde. He repulsed a raiding party near Shamakhi on 5 May 1288. Another attack on Derbent occurred on 26 March 1289. Headed by Taghachar and other commanders, this attack too was prevented. War officially ended when Arghun returned to Bilasuvaron 2 May 1290.
Relations with Mamlukes
During Arghun's reign, the Egyptian Mamluks were continuously reinforcing their power in Syria. The Mamluk Sultan Qalawun recaptured Crusader territories, some of which, such as Tripoli, had been vassal states of the Il Khans. The Mamluks had captured the northern fortress of Margat in 1285, Lattakia in 1287, and completed the Fall of Tripoliin 1289.
Relations with Christian powers
Arghun was one of a long line of Genghis-Khanite rulers who had endeavored to establish a Franco-Mongol alliance with the Europeans, against their common foes the Mamluks of Egypt. Arghun had promised his potential allies that if Jerusalemwere to be conquered, he would have himself baptized. Yet by the late 13th century, Western Europe was no longer as interested in the crusading effort, and Arghun's missions were ultimately fruitless. In 1285, Arghun sent an embassy and a letter to Pope Hono...
Arghun had developed a great interest in alchemy towards end of his reign. He gave shelters to Buddhist lamas who would advice him on religious matters. He also befriended a yogi who claimed to have lived longer than anyone and could offer Arghun the same. The way Rashid al-Din described this alchemist who gave a concoction of sulphur and mercury to Arghun was the same substance that Marco Polo described as Indian yogis' experience. After 8 months of taking the substance, Arghun fell ill. Tengriist shamans accused Toghachaq Khatun, Tekuder's widow among other women of witchcraft, who were executed on 19 January 1291 by being thrown into a river. Arghun's health deteriorated on 27 January and was paralyzed. Using opportunity, Taghachar and his allies made another purge with killing Sa'd al-Dawla and his proteges on 2 April. Arghun finally died on morning of March 7 or March 10, 1291 in Arran. He was buried on a secret location in mountains of Sojason 12 March.
In the West, the 13th century saw such a vogue of Mongol things that many new-born children in Italy were named after Genghisid rulers, including Arghun: names such as Can Grande ("Great Khan"), Alaone (Hulagu), Argone (Arghun) or Cassano (Ghazan) are recorded with a high frequency. According to the Dominican missionary Ricoldo of Montecroce, Arghun was "a man given to the worst of villainy, but for all that a friend of the Christians". Arghun was a Buddhist, but as did most Turco-Mongols, he showed great tolerance for all faiths, even allowing Muslims to be judged under Islamic Law. Arghun dynasty later claimed descent from him. Hasan Fasai also claimed his treasure was found during reign of Qajar dynasty, trying to link Qajars to Qajar Noyan, son of his emir Sartaq Noyan.
Arghun had ten consorts, 7 of them being khatun and 3 of them being concubines. From his children, only 2 sons and 2 daughters reached to adulthood: Principal wives: 1. Qutlugh Khatun (d. 13 March 1288) — daughter of Tengiz Güregen of Oirats and Todogaj Khatun, daughter of Hulagu Khan 1.1. Khitai-oghul (also named Sengirges, born between 1282-1288 - d. 24 January 1298) 2. Öljatai Khatun (m. 1288) — daughter of Sulamish, son of Tengiz Güregen and Todogaj Khatun, widow of Tengiz (they married in levirate) 3. Uruk Khatun — daughter of Sarija, sister of emir Irinjin and a great granddaughter of Ong Khan 3.1. Yesü Temür (born between 1271-1282, d. 18 May 1290) 3.2. Öljaitü(b. 24 March 1282 - d. 16 December 1316) 3.3. Öljatai Khatun — married firstly to Qunchuqbal, married secondly to Aq Buqa, married thirdly to her stepson, Amir Husayn Jalayir, son of Aq Buqa 3.4. Öljai Timur — married firstly to Tukal, married secondly on 30 May 1296 to Qutlughshah 3.5. Qutlugh Timur Khatun (died in you...
He was the son of Arghun and Quthluq Khatun, grandson of Abaqa Khan continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan. Considered the most prominent of the Ilkhans, he is best known for making a political conversion to Islam and meeting Imam Ibn Taymiyya in 1295 when he took the throne, marking a turning point for the dominant religion of Mongols in Western Asia.
- Military Campaigns
- Death and Succession
Abaqa was born in Mongolia in February 1234, son of Ilkhanate founder Hulagu Khan. Abaqa was a Buddhist. A favoured son of Hulagu, he was made governor of Turkestan. Hulagu died from illness in 1265. Before his death, he had been negotiating with the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos to add a daughter of the Byzantine imperial family to Hulagu's number of wives. Michael VIII had selected his illegitimate daughter Maria Palaiologina, who was dispatched in 1265, escorted by the abbot of Pantokrator monastery, Theodosius de Villehardouin. Historian Steven Runciman relates how she was accompanied by the Patriarch Euthymius of Antioch.Since Hulagu died before she arrived, she was instead married to Hulagu's son, Abaqa. He received her hand in marriage when he was installed as Ilkhan. When Hulagu's wife Doquz Khatun also died in 1265, the role of spiritual leader transferred to Maria, who was called "Despina Khatun" by the Mongols. It was Abaqa who decided on the permanent locati...
Since Hulagu's reign, the Mongols of the Ilkhanate had been at war with the Mongols of the Golden Horde. This continued into Abaqa's reign, and the Golden Horde invaded the Ilkhanate in the Spring after his accession. The invasion was partly due to an alliance between the Golden Horde and the Egyptian Mamluks. As part of this alliance, the Golden Horde would attempt to distract Abaqa through an attack on his territories to keep him from invading Mamluk-held Syria. The hostilities continued un...
Ögedei's grandson Kaidu, Batu's grandson Mengu-Timur and Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate formed an alliance against Kublai Khan and Abaqa in Talas. They appointed Kaidu a ruler of Central Asia. The Kaidu–Kublai warlasted for a few decades. In 1270, Baraq Khan of the Chagataids tried to annex Iran, which started a new war against Abaqa in the city of Herat, though Abaqa was able to launch a successful defence and, also, defeated Baraq's relative Teguder in Georgia. In the following year, he reta...
Invasions of Syria
Abaqa was one in a long line of Mongol rulers who attempted to secure Western co-operation against the Muslim Mamluks. He corresponded with Pope Clement IV during 1267-1268, and reportedly sent a Mongol ambassador in 1268, trying to form a Franco-Mongol alliance between his forces, those of the West, and those of his father-in-law Michael VIII. He received responses from Rome and from James I of Aragon, though it is unclear if this was what led to James's unsuccessful expedition to Acre in 12...
Abaqa died at Hamadan on 4 April 1282, probably in a state of delirium tremens. This illness was probably caused by too much consumption of alcohol, a habit common to many Mongol leaders. However, in 1285, his minister of finance Shams ad-Din Juvayniwas accused of having had him poisoned. After Abaqa's death, his widow Maria fled back to Constantinople where her father, apparently wishing to spare his capital the fate that befell Baghdad, tried to marry her off again to another Mongol khan. Maria would not accept the offer, became a nun, and founded the church of Panagia Mouchliotissaaround 1285. Abaqa was succeeded by his brother Tekuder, who despite his earlier conflicts with the Egyptian Mamluks, had converted to Islam. Tekuder reversed Abaqa's pro-Christian policies and proposed an alliance with the Mamluk Sultan Qalawun, who resumed attacks on Frankish territory, capturing the northern fortress of Margat in 1285, Lattakia in 1287, and Tripoli in 1289. In 1284, Abaqa's son Arghu...
Abaqa had sixteen consorts and children with several of them: Inherited from Hulagu: 1. Öljei Khatun, mother of Möngke Temür 2. Tuqtani (or Toqiyatai) (d. 20 February 1292) — former concubine, raised to be a khatun, was given Dokuz Khatun's encampment Principal wives: 1. Dorji Khatun 2. Nukdan Khatun — from Tatar tribe; replaced Dorji after her death 2.1. Gaykhatu 3. Eltuzmish Khatun — daughter of Qutlugh Timur Güregen of Khonggirad, sister of Taraghai Güregen; replaced Nukdan after her death 4. Padishah Khatun — daughter of Qutb-ud-din Muhammad, ruler of Kirman and Kutlugh Turkan; was given Yesunchin Khatun's (d. January/February 1272) encampment 5. Mertei Khatun — half sister of Taghai Timur (renamed Musa) of Khongirad (son of Shigu Güregen) 5.1. Buchin Khatun 6. Todai Khatun — a lady from Khongirad, who afterwards married Tekuder and after him Arghun 6.1. Yul Qutlugh Khatun — married firstly to Eljidei Qushchi, married secondly to Emir Elbasmish 6.2. Taghai Khatun — married first...
He was born to Abaqa and Nukdan Khatun, a Tatar lady in c.1259. He was living in Jazira during Tekuder's reign and had to flee to Arghun in Khorasan after Qonqurtai's execution in 1284. He was given as hostage to Tekuder by Arghun as a condition of truce in June 1284 and put in orda of Todai Khatun, his step-mother.
The University of Tokyo | Todai ... Mst. Taskia Khatun. Marc-Andre Chavy-Macdonald. The success of a project can be described based on the output performance of the project. Output Performance ...
Quthluq Khatun Uruk Khatun Todai Khatun Saljuk Khatun Bulughan Khatun Qutai Khatun Bulughan Khatun Qultak Agachi Argana Aghachi Oljatai Khatun: Problém: Ghazan Öljaitü: Dynastie: Borjigin: Otec: Abaqa: Matka: Qaitmish egechi: Náboženství: Buddhismus
قراوناس عراقی طی دوره ایلخانی به ویژه در زمان درگیریهای ارغون (Arϒûn) و تکودار (Takûdâr) به سال 683 ه/ 1284م بیشترین نقش را در منازعات ایفا کردند. آنها همچنین در جریان وقایع دوره آباقا نیز به عنوان ...